83 research outputs found

    FCI: an R-based algorithm for evaluating uncertainty of absolute real-time PCR quantification

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    Background: FCI is an R code for analyzing data from real-time PCR experiments. This algorithm estimates standard curve features as well as nucleic acid concentrations and confidence intervals according to Fieller's theorem. Results: In order to describe the features of FCI four situations were selected from real data collected during an international external quality assessment program for quantitative assays based on real-time PCR. The code generates a diagnostic figure suitable for assessing the quality of the quantification process. Conclusion: We have provided a freeware programme using this algorithm specifically designed to increase the information content of the real-time PCR assay. \ua9 2008 Verderio et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd

    High-Frequency Intermuscular Coherence between Arm Muscles during Robot-Mediated Motor Adaptation

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    Adaptation of arm reaching in a novel force field involves co-contraction of upper limb muscles, but it is not known how the co-ordination of multiple muscle activation is orchestrated. We have used intermuscular coherence (IMC) to test whether a coherent intermuscular coupling between muscle pairs is responsible for novel patterns of activation during adaptation of reaching in a force field. Subjects (N = 16) performed reaching trials during a null force field, then during a velocity-dependent force field and then again during a null force field. Reaching trajectory error increased during early adaptation to the force-field and subsequently decreased during later adaptation. Co-contraction in the majority of all possible muscle pairs also increased during early adaptation and decreased during later adaptation. In contrast, IMC increased during later adaptation and only in a subset of muscle pairs. IMC consistently occurred in frequencies between ~40-100 Hz and during the period of arm movement, suggesting that a coherent intermuscular coupling between those muscles contributing to adaptation enable a reduction in wasteful co-contraction and energetic cost during reaching

    Predictive Role of CD36 Expression in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Trastuzumab

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    CD36 expression; Breast cancer; Neoadjuvant trastuzumabExpresión CD36; Cáncer de mama; Trastuzumab neoadyuvanteExpressió CD36; Càncer de mama; Trastuzumab neoadjuvantBackground Despite huge efforts to identify biomarkers associated with long-term clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer (HER2+ BC) treated with (neo)adjuvant anti-HER2 therapy, no reliable predictors have been identified so far. Fatty acid uptake, a process mediated by the transmembrane transporter CD36, has recently emerged as a potential determinant of resistance to anti-HER2 treatments in preclinical HER2+ BC models. Methods Here, we investigated the association between baseline intratumor CD36 gene expression and event-free survival in 180 patients enrolled in the phase III trial Neoadjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization (NeoALTTO), which randomly assigned stage II-III HER2+ BC patients to receive neoadjuvant lapatinib, trastuzumab, or lapatinib-trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy. To this aim, we selected NeoALTTO trial patients for whom pretreatment whole transcriptomic data were available. The main study results were validated in an independent cohort of patients enrolled in the neoadjuvant phase II trial NeoSphere. Results In 180 NeoALTTO patients, high intratumor CD36 expression was independently associated with worse event-free survival in patients treated with trastuzumab-based therapy (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20 to 2.46), but not with lapatinib-based (HR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.68 to 1.53) or trastuzumab-lapatinib–based (HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.60 to 1.94) therapy. Among 331 NeoSphere patients evaluated, high CD36 expression was independently associated with worse patient disease-free survival in both the whole study cohort (HR = 1.197, 95% CI = 1.002 to 1.428) and patients receiving trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant therapy (HR = 1.282, 95% CI = 1.049 to 1.568). Conclusions High CD36 expression predicts worse clinical outcomes in early-stage HER2+ BC treated with trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant therapy.The NeoALTTO trial was sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline; the NeoSphere trial was sponsored by F. Hoffmann-La Roche. Our subanalysis of the NeoALTTO and NeoSphere trials received no funding by pharmaceutical companies

    What if the future of HER2-positive breast cancer patients was written in miRNAs? An exploratory analysis from NeoALTTO study

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    HER2; MicroRNA; TrastuzumabHER2; MicroARN; TrastuzumabHER2; MicroARN; TrastuzumabBackground Neoadjuvant therapy with dual HER2 blockade improved pathological complete response (pCR) rate in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. Nevertheless, it would be desirable to identify patients exquisitely responsive to single agent trastuzumab to minimize or avoid overtreatment. Herein, we evaluated the predictive and prognostic value of basal primary tumor miRNA expression profile within the trastuzumab arm of NeoALTTO study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00553358). Methods RNA samples from baseline biopsies were randomized into training (n = 45) and testing (n = 47) sets. After normalization, miRNAs associated with Event-free survival (EFS) and pCR were identified by univariate analysis. Multivariate models were implemented to generate specific signatures which were first confirmed, and then analyzed together with other clinical and pathological variables. Results We identified a prognostic signature including hsa-miR-153-3p (HR 1.831, 95% CI: 1.34–2.50) and hsa-miR-219a-5p (HR 0.629, 95% CI: 0.50–0.78). For two additional miRNAs (miR-215-5p and miR-30c-2-3p), we found a statistically significant interaction term with pCR (p.interaction: 0.017 and 0.038, respectively). Besides, a two-miRNA signature was predictive of pCR (hsa-miR-31-3p, OR 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53–0.92, and hsa-miR-382-3p, OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.01–1.91). Notably, the performance of this predictive miRNA signature resembled that of the genomic classifiers PAM50 and TRAR, and did not improve when the extended models were fitted. Conclusion Analyses of primary tumor tissue miRNAs hold the potential of a parsimonious tool to identify patients with differential clinical outcomes after trastuzumab based neoadjuvant therapy.This work was supported by a Young Investigator Grant (Ricerca Finalizzata Giovani Ricercatori) from the Italian Ministry of Health to M.V. Iorio (grant no. GR-2016-02361750)

    End-of-neoadjuvant treatment circulating microRNAs and HER2-positive breast cancer patient prognosis: An exploratory analysis from NeoALTTO

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    Cáncer de mama HER2 positivo; MicroARN circulante; Tratamiento neoadyuvanteCàncer de mama HER2-positiu; MicroARN circulant; Tractament neoadjuvantHER2-positive breast cancer; Circulating microRNA; Neoadjuvant treatmentBackground: The absence of breast cancer cells in surgical specimens, i.e., pathological complete response (pCR), is widely recognized as a favorable prognostic factor after neoadjuvant therapy. In contrast, the presence of disease at surgery characterizes a prognostically heterogeneous group of patients. Here, we challenged circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) at the end of neoadjuvant therapy as potential prognostic biomarkers in the NeoALTTO study. Methods: Patients treated within the trastuzumab arm (i.e., pre-operative weekly trastuzumab for 6 weeks followed by the addition of weekly paclitaxel for 12 weeks; post-operative FEC for 3 cycles followed by trastuzumab up to complete 1 year of treatment) were randomized into a training (n= 54) and testing (n= 72) set. RT-PCR-based high-throughput miRNA profile was performed on plasma samples collected at the end of neoadjuvant treatment of both sets. After normalization, circulating miRNAs associated with event free survival (EFS) were identified by univariate and multivariate Cox regression model. Results: Starting from 23 circulating miRNAs associated with EFS in the training set, we generated a 3-circulating miRNA prognostic signature consisting of miR-185-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-22-3p, which was confirmed in the testing set. The 3-circulating miRNA signature showed a C-statistic of 0.62 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.53-0.71) in the entire study cohort. By resorting to a multivariate Cox regression model we found a statistical significant interaction between the expression values of miR-194-5p and pCR status (p.interaction =0.005) with an estimate Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.83 (95%CI 1.14- 2.95) in patients with pCR, and 0.87 (95%CI 0.69-1.10) in those without pCR. Notably, the model including this interaction along with the abovementioned 3-circulating miRNA signature provided the highest discriminatory capability with a C-statistic of 0.67 (95%CI 0.58-0.76). Conclusions: Circulating miRNAs are informative to identify patients with different prognosis among those with heterogeneous response after trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant treatment, and may be an exploitable tool to select candidates for salvage adjuvant therapy.The NeoALTTO study was sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline; Lapatinib is an asset of Novartis AG as of March 2, 2015. This sub-study was supported by the Italian Ministry of Health to SC. No grant number is applicable, funds were obtained through a law that allows tax-payers to allocate the 5 × 1000 share of their payments to research

    Advanced technology for gait rehabilitation: An overview

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    Most gait training systems are designed for acute and subacute neurological inpatients. Many systems are used for relearning gait movements (nonfunctional training) or gait cycle training (functional gait training). Each system presents its own advantages and disadvantages in terms of functional outcomes. However, training gait cycle movements is not sufficient for the rehabilitation of ambulation. There is a need for new solutions to overcome the limitations of existing systems in order to ensure individually tailored training conditions for each of the potential users, no matter the complexity of his or her condition. There is also a need for a new, integrative approach in gait rehabilitation, one that encompasses and addresses all aspects of physical as well as psychological aspects of ambulation in real-life multitasking situations. In this respect, a multidisciplinary multinational team performed an overview of the current technology for gait rehabilitation and reviewed the principles of ambulation training

    Muscle co-contraction patterns in robot-mediated force field learningto guide specific muscle group training

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    BACKGROUND: Muscle co-contraction is a strategy of increasing movement accuracy and stability employed in dealing with perturbation of movement. It is often seen in neuropathological populations. The direction of movement influences the pattern of co-contraction, but not all movements are easily achievable for populations with motor deficits. Manipulating the direction of the force instead, may be a promising rehabilitation protocol to train movement with use of a co-contraction reduction strategy. Force field learning paradigms provide a well described procedure to evoke and test muscle co-contraction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the muscle co-contraction pattern in a wide range of arm muscles in different force-field directions utilising a robot-assisted force field learning paradigm of motor adaptation. METHOD: 42 participants volunteered to participate in a study utilising robot-assisted motor adaptation paradigm with clockwise or counter-clockwise force field. Kinematics and surface electromyography (EMG) of eight arm muscles has been measured. RESULTS: Both muscle activation and co-contraction was earlier and stronger in flexors in clockwise condition and in extensors in the counter-clockwise condition. CONCLUSIONS: Manipulating the force field direction leads to changes in the pattern of muscle co-contraction

    Association between CASP8-652 6N del polymorphism (rs3834129) and colorectal cancer risk: results from a multi-centric study

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    The common −652 6N del variant in the CASP8 promoter (rs3834129) has been described as a putative low-penetrance risk factor for different cancer types. In particular, some studies suggested that the deleted allele (del) was inversely associated with CRC risk while other analyses failed to confirm this. Hence, to better understand the role of this variant in the risk of developing CRC, we performed a multi-centric case-control study. In the study, the variant −652 6N del was genotyped in a total of 6,733 CRC cases and 7,576 controls recruited by six different centers located in Spain, Italy, USA, England, Czech Republic and the Netherlands collaborating to the international consortium COGENT (COlorectal cancer GENeTics). Our analysis indicated that rs3834129 was not associated with CRC risk in the full data set. However, the del allele was under-represented in one set of cases with a family history of CRC (per allele model OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90) suggesting this allele might be a protective factor versus familial CRC. Since this multi-centric case-control study was performed on a very large sample size, it provided robust clarification of the effect of rs3834129 on the risk of developing CRC in Caucasians
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