6 research outputs found

    Capital Accumulation and Social Welfare in Fiscal Federalism and the Unitary System

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    This paper presents an analysis on capital accumulation and social welfare in fiscal federalism and the unitary system by using an overlapping generations model. We introduce three possible cases pertaining to how government tax policy towards individuals could be formulated: the government imposes tax on young and old generations under fiscal federalism (case A); the government imposes tax only on young generation under fiscal federalism (case B) as well as under the unitary system (case C). We show that, the level of steady-state capital accumulation as well as social welfare in case A is greater than those in cases B and C if certain conditions are satisfied. Our results suggest that, fiscal federalism is more preferable than the unitary system.Capital accumulation; Fiscal federalism; Unitary system; Overlapping generations

    The Choice of Tax Bases under Fiscal Federalism and the Unitary System

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    This paper analyzes the governmentÂfs choice of three proportional tax bases (a consumption tax, a wage tax and a capital income tax) and its influence on the steady-state levels of capital accumulation and social welfare under fiscal federalism and the unitary system. We report two main findings: first, the system that uses a consumption and a capital income tax bases yields a higher steady state level of capital accumulation than that which uses a wage tax base. When each system uses the same tax base, then the steady state levels of capital accumulation under the two systems are equivalent. Second, the social welfare levels in fiscal federalism and the unitary system under a consumption tax base are equivalent if individualsÂf rate of time preference just equal to the interest rate, while the social welfare levels in the two systems under the wage and capital income tax bases are equivalent if and only if the rate of time preference is equal to the population growth rate.Tax base

    Indonesian Trainees in Japanese SMEs, Capital Accumulation and Micro-Small Business Development in Indonesia: A Preliminary Study

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    Indonesia is one of the world important suppliers of young trainees in Japan. We present a preliminary study’s result on Indonesian trainees in Japanese SMEs and their potential to develop micro-small business in Indonesia. This paper utilizes three step approaches. First, an online survey of potency of Indonesian trainees in Japan has been conducting since October 2007 followed up by a Japan-wide Entrepreneurship and Banking Trainings (PWEP). Second, web-based business start-ups consultation forums for Indonesian trainees have been conducted since January 2008 followed up by networking creation with Bank of Indonesia. Third, a key performance indicator of business proposed and money invested was developed. We report three main findings: first, over 70% of Indonesian trainees were working at manufacturing-based Japanese SMEs and might acquire a necessary human capital in developing micro-small manufacturing-based business start-ups. In addition, more than 60% of them could save their income at least 25-40% of their total monthly income, suggested that capital foundation required for business creation might then be compromised. Second, the structural constraint of unmonitored Indonesian trainees might cause problems in which—after having cultural distress while working in Japan and less conducive condition in managing their capital after returning to Indonesia—the potential to become an law-breaking overstay workers is considerably high and might cause a more sophisticated problem in the future. Third, the importance of directing step for Indonesian trainees who are interested in creating businesses and key performance indicators for measuring its achievement are acknowledged.Indonesian trainees, Japanese SMEs, PWEP, capital accumulation, key performance indicator, compliance meter

    Kepemimpinan Demokratis Kepala Sekolah di Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan

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    Penulisan bertujuan untuk melihat bentuk kepemimpinan demokratis kepemimpinan di SMK Muhammadiyah 1 Padang. Penelitian ini merupakan pendekatan deskriptif kuantitatif. Pengumpulan data memanfaatkan teknik observasi (pengamatan).. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa Kepala Sekolah dapat meningkatkan kreativitas dan perubahan diantara guru dan stafnya dengan meningkatkan pemikiran kritis dan pemecahan masalah untuk menjadikan sekolah ke arah baik. Kepemimpinan demokratis memiliki identitas yang pertama kepala sekolah memberikan kepercayaan staf dan guru dalam melakukan tugas. Kedua kepala sekolah memberi penghargaan diri kepada guru yang melakukan perubahan dan kreativitas dalam pengajaran. Ketiga kepala sekolah memberi kesempatan kepada staf maupun guru yang melakukan kesalahan untuk memperbaiki dir

    Toward ASEAN Economic Community: Revitalising Indonesia’s Position in Financial and Customs Cooperation

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    This paper is meant to provide a simple current line of discourse on Indonesian position in The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) focusing in the financial and customs cooperation. AEC is the target of ASEAN economic integration 2015. In regards of favorable precondition: the market of 600 million populations, stable economic growth and relatively high investment level, in the long run AEC most likely will benefit every ASEAN members. The analysis tried to describe and develop issues correlations between financial cooperation: capital market development, liberalization of capital account, liberalization of financial service, ASEAN+3 bond m arket initiative, ASEAN+3 research group; and customs integration issues: Implementation of Strategic Plan of Customs Development (SPCD). There are two conclusions from the analysis. First, in the overall AEC scorecard, Indonesian position is in par with Lao PDR and Cambodia but far behind other members (April 2013 position), while in the context of financial cooperation, Indonesian position is far above BCLMV, competing with Thailand and Philippines but still behind Malaysia and Singapore (ASEAN Cooperation). These facts fortify the urgency of accelerating the implementation of AEC initiatives and reassessing Indonesian position in ASEAN financial cooperation and ASEAN+3. Further, over SPCD 15 strategies as the instruments for customs integration, the paper wrapped up the importance of customs administration capacity building, mainly focused on improving customs procedure, customs valuation rules, rules of origin, and customs modernization. The paper will further articulated the issue recommendations on steps and caveat for policy formulation and harmonization both at national and regional level

    Indonesian Trainees in Japanese SMEs, Capital Accumulation and Micro-Small Business Development in Indonesia: A Preliminary Study

    Get PDF
    Indonesia is one of the world important suppliers of young trainees in Japan. We present a preliminary study’s result on Indonesian trainees in Japanese SMEs and their potential to develop micro-small business in Indonesia. This paper utilizes three step approaches. First, an online survey of potency of Indonesian trainees in Japan has been conducting since October 2007 followed up by a Japan-wide Entrepreneurship and Banking Trainings (PWEP). Second, web-based business start-ups consultation forums for Indonesian trainees have been conducted since January 2008 followed up by networking creation with Bank of Indonesia. Third, a key performance indicator of business proposed and money invested was developed. We report three main findings: first, over 70% of Indonesian trainees were working at manufacturing-based Japanese SMEs and might acquire a necessary human capital in developing micro-small manufacturing-based business start-ups. In addition, more than 60% of them could save their income at least 25-40% of their total monthly income, suggested that capital foundation required for business creation might then be compromised. Second, the structural constraint of unmonitored Indonesian trainees might cause problems in which—after having cultural distress while working in Japan and less conducive condition in managing their capital after returning to Indonesia—the potential to become an law-breaking overstay workers is considerably high and might cause a more sophisticated problem in the future. Third, the importance of directing step for Indonesian trainees who are interested in creating businesses and key performance indicators for measuring its achievement are acknowledged
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