26 research outputs found

    Associação de citocinas, incapacidade neurológica e duração da doença em pacientes com mielopatia associada ao HTLV-I/paraparesia espástica tropical (MAH/PET)

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    OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and immunological markers associated with HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). METHOD: 237 HTLV-I infected individuals were clinically assessed. They were classified according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Osame s Motor Disability Score (OMDS). Cytokine levels were determined in HTLV-I seropositive individuals. RESULTS: 37 patients had HAM/TSP. There was a correlation between the degrees of disability assessed by both scales. There was also a correlation between the duration of HAM/TSP and the severity of disability assessed by either EDSS or OMDS. Higher levels of IFN-g were detected in unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HAM/TSP patients as compared with HTLV-I carriers. CONCLUSION: This study shows the validity of the neurological scales to classify the degree of neurological disability in HTLV-I carriers and suggests a progressive behavior of HAM/TSP. This study also shows that IFN-g in PBMC supernatants are markers of HAM/TSP. ________________________________________________________________________________________ RESUMO: OBEJETIVO: Identificar marcadores cl√≠nicos e imunol√≥gicos associados com a mielopatia associada ao HTLV-I/paraparesia esp√°stica tropical (MAH/PET). M√ČTODO: 237 indiv√≠duos infectados pelo HTLV-I foram clinicamente avaliados. Eles foram classificados de acordo com a escala expandida do estado de incapacidade de Kurtzke (EDSS) e escala de incapacidade motora de Osame (OMDS). N√≠veis de citocinas foram determinados nos indiv√≠duos. RESULTADOS: 37 pacientes tinham MAH/PET. Houve correla√ß√£o entre os graus de incapacidade pelas escalas. Houve tamb√©m correla√ß√£o entre a dura√ß√£o da MAH/PET e o grau da incapacidade pelas escalas. N√≠veis elevados de IFN-g foram detectados em c√©lulas mononucleares de sangue perif√©rico (CMSP) n√£o estimuladas de pacientes com MAH/PET quando comparados com indiv√≠duos HTLV-I positivos assintom√°ticos. CONCLUS√ÉO: Os dados demonstram a validade das escalas neurol√≥gicas para classificar o grau de incapacidade neurol√≥gica em portadores do HTLV-I e sugerem o comportamento progressivo da MAH/PET. Este estudo tamb√©m demonstra que os n√≠veis de IFN-g em sobrenadante de CMSP s√£o marcadores da MAH/PET

    Exacerbated inflammatory cellular immune response characteristics of HAM/TSP is observed in a large proportion of HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers

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    BACKGROUND: A small fraction of Human T cell Leukemia Virus type-1 (HTLV-I) infected subjects develop a severe form of myelopathy. It has been established that patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) show an exaggerated immune response when compared with the immunological response observed in HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers. In this study the immunological responses in HAM/TSP patients and in HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers were compared using several immunological assays to identify immunological markers associated with progression from infection to disease. METHODS: Immunoproliferation assays, cytokine levels of unstimulated cultures, and flow cytometry analysis were used to evaluate the studied groups. Nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed ranks) were used to compare the difference between the groups. RESULTS: Although both groups showed great variability, HAM/TSP patients had higher spontaneous lymphoproliferation as well as higher IFN-ő≥ levels in unstimulated supernatants when compared with asymptomatic carriers. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated a high frequency of inflammatory cytokine (IFN-ő≥ and TNF-őĪ) producing lymphocytes in HAM/TSP as compared to the asymptomatic group. This difference was accounted for mainly by an increase in CD8 cell production of these cytokines. Moreover, the HAM/TSP patients also expressed an increased frequency of CD28-/CD8+ T cells. Since forty percent of the asymptomatic carriers had spontaneous lymphoproliferation and IFN-ő≥ production similar to HAM/TSP patients, IFN-ő≥ levels were measured eight months after the first evaluation in some of these patients to observe if this was a transient or a persistent situation. No significant difference was observed between the means of IFN-ő≥ levels in the first and second evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that a large proportion of HTLV-I carriers present similar immunological responses to those observed in HAM/TSP, strongly argues for further studies to evaluate these parameters as markers of HAM/TSP progression

    Clinical and immunological consequences of human T cell leukemia virus type-I and Schistosoma mansoni co-infection

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    Human T cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I) infection is associated with spontaneous T cell activation and uncontrolled lymphocyte proliferation. An exacerbated type-1 immune response with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) is significantly higher in patients with myelopathy associated to HTLV-I than in HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers. In contrast with HTLV-I, a chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection is associated with a type-2 immune response with high levels of interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) and low levels of IFN-gamma. In this study, clinical and immunological consequences of the HTLV-I and S. mansoni infection were evaluated. The immune response in patients with schistosomiasis co-infected with HTLV-I showed low levels of IL-5 (p < 0.05) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures stimulated with S. mansoni antigen (SWAP) and decreased SWAP-specific IgE levels when compared with patients with only schistosomiasis (p < 0.05). Liver fibrosis was mild in all HTLV-I co-infected patients. Immunological response was also compared in individuals who had only HTLV-I infection with those who were co-infected with HTLV-I and helminths (S. mansoni and Strongyloides stercoralis). In patients HTLV-I positive co-infected with helminths the IFN-gamma levels were lower than in individuals who had only HTLV-I. Moreover, there were fewer cells expressing IFN-gamma and more cells expressing IL-10 in individuals co-infected with HTLV-I and helminths. These dates indicate that HTLV-I infection decrease type 2-response and IgE synthesis and are inversely associated with the development of liver fibrosis. Moreover, helminths may protect HTLV-I infected patients to produce large quantities of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma
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