349 research outputs found

    Probing compressed mass spectra in electroweak supersymmetry with Recursive Jigsaw Reconstruction

    Full text link
    The lack of evidence for the production of colored supersymmetric particles at the LHC has increased interest in searches for superpartners of the electroweak SM gauge bosons, namely the neutralinos and charginos. These are challenging due to the weak nature of the production process, and the existing discovery reach has significant gaps in due to the difficulty of separating the supersymmetric signal from SM diboson events that produce similar final states and kinematics. We apply the Recursive Jigsaw Reconstruction technique to study final states enriched in charged leptons and missing transverse momentum, focusing on compressed topologies with direct production of charginos and neutralinos decaying to the lightest neutral supersymmetric particle through the emission of W and Z bosons. After presenting prototype analysis designs for future LHC runs, we demonstrate that its detectors have the potential to probe a significant amount of unexplored parameter space for chargino-neutralino associated production within the next few years, and show that the very challenging successful search for chargino pair production with compressed spectra might be possible by the end of the LHC lifetime.Comment: 20 pages, 33 figure

    Sparticles in Motion - getting to the line in compressed scenarios with the Recursive Jigsaw Reconstruction

    Get PDF
    The observation of light super-partners from a supersymmetric extension to the Standard Model is an intensely sought-after experimental outcome, providing an explanation for the stabilization of the electroweak scale and indicating the existence of new particles which could be consistent with dark matter phenomenology. For compressed scenarios, where sparticle spectra mass-splittings are small and decay products carry low momenta, dedicated techniques are required in all searches for supersymmetry. In this paper we suggest an approach for these analyses based on the concept of Recursive Jigsaw Reconstruction, decomposing each event into a basis of complementary observables, for cases where strong initial state radiation has sufficient transverse momentum to elicit the recoil of any final state sparticles. We introduce a collection of kinematic observables which can be used to probe compressed scenarios, in particular exploiting the correlation between missing momentum and that of radiative jets. As an example, we study squark and gluino production, focusing on mass-splittings between parent super-particles and their lightest decay products between 25 and 200 GeV, in hadronic final states where there is an ambiguity in the provenance of reconstructed jets

    Natural killer cell response to chemotherapy-stressed cancer cells: Role in tumor immunosurveillance.

    Get PDF
    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate cytotoxic lymphoid cells that actively prevent neoplastic development, growth, and metastatic dissemination in a process called cancer immunosurveillance. An equilibrium between immune control and tumor growth is maintained as long as cancer cells evade immunosurveillance. Therapies designed to kill cancer cells and to simultaneously sustain host antitumor immunity are an appealing strategy to control tumor growth. Several chemotherapeutic agents, depending on which drugs and doses are used, give rise to DNA damage and cancer cell death by means of apoptosis, immunogenic cell death, or other forms of non-apoptotic death (i.e., mitotic catastrophe, senescence, and autophagy). However, it is becoming increasingly clear that they can trigger additional stress responses. Indeed, relevant immunostimulating effects of different therapeutic programs include also the activation of pathways able to promote their recognition by immune effector cells. Among stress-inducible immunostimulating proteins, changes in the expression levels of NK cell-activating and inhibitory ligands, as well as of death receptors on tumor cells, play a critical role in their detection and elimination by innate immune effectors, including NK cells. Here, we will review recent advances in chemotherapy-mediated cellular stress pathways able to stimulate NK cell effector functions. In particular, we will address how these cytotoxic lymphocytes sense and respond to different types of drug-induced stresses contributing to anticancer activity

    Sparticles in motion: Analyzing compressed SUSY scenarios with a new method of event reconstruction

    Get PDF
    The observation of light superpartners from a supersymmetric extension to the Standard Model is an intensely sought-after experimental outcome, providing an explanation for the stabilization of the electroweak scale and indicating the existence of new particles which could be consistent with dark matter phenomenology. For compressed scenarios, where sparticle spectra mass splittings are small and decay products carry low momenta, dedicated techniques are required in all searches for supersymmetry. In this paper we suggest an approach for these analyses based on the concept of recursive jigsaw reconstruction, decomposing each event into a basis of complementary observables, for cases where strong initial state radiation has sufficient transverse momentum to elicit the recoil of any final state sparticles. We introduce a collection of kinematic observables which can be used to probe compressed scenarios, in particular exploiting the correlation between missing momentum and that of radiative jets. As an example, we study squark and gluino production, focusing on mass-splittings between parent superparticles and their lightest decay products between 25 and 200 GeV, in hadronic final states where there is an ambiguity in the provenance of reconstructed jets

    Implementation of a regulatory gene network to simulate the TH1/2 differentiation in an agent-based model of hypersensitivity reactions

    Get PDF
    Abstract Motivation: An unbalanced differentiation of T helper cells from precursor type TH0 to the TH1 or TH2 phenotype in immune responses often leads to a pathological condition. In general, immune reactions biased toward TH1 responses may result in auto-immune diseases, while enhanced TH2 responses may cause allergic reactions. The aim of this work is to integrate a gene network of the TH differentiation in an agent-based model of the hyper-sensitivity reaction. The implementation of such a system introduces a second level of description beyond the mesoscopic level of the inter-cellular interaction of the agent-based model. The intra-cellular level consists in the cell internal dynamics of gene activation and transcription. The gene regulatory network includes genes-related molecules that have been found to be involved in the differentiation process in TH cells. Results: The simulator reproduces the hallmarks of an IgE-mediated hypersensitive reaction and provides an example of how to combine the mesoscopic level description of immune cells with the microscopic gene-level dynamics. Availability: The basic version of the simulator of the immune response can be downloaded here: http://www.iac.cnr.it/~filippo/C-ImmSim.html Contact: [email protected] Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online

    Accurate Estimation of a Coil Magnetic Dipole Moment

    Full text link
    In this paper, a technique for accurate estimation of the moment of magnetic dipole is proposed. The achievable accuracy is investigated, as a function of measurement noise affecting estimation of magnetic field cartesian components. The proposed technique is validated both via simulations and experimentally.Comment: Preprin

    NKG2D and its ligands: one for all, all for one

    Get PDF
    The activating receptor NKG2D is peculiar in its capability to bind to numerous and highly diversified MHC class I-like self-molecules. These ligands are poorly expressed on normal cells but can be induced on damaged, transformed or infected cells, with the final NKG2D ligand expression resulting from multiple levels of regulation. Although redundant molecular mechanisms can converge in the regulation of all NKG2D ligands, different stimuli can induce specific cellular responses, leading to the expression of one or few ligands. A large body of evidence demonstrates that NK cell activation can be triggered by different NKG2D ligands, often expressed on the same cell, suggesting a functional redundancy of these molecules. However, since a number of evasion mechanisms can reduce membrane expression of these molecules both on virus-infected and tumor cells, the co-expression of different ligands and/or the presence of allelic forms of the same ligand guarantee NKG2D activation in various stressful conditions and cell contexts. Noteworthy, NKG2D ligands can differ in their ability to down-modulate NKG2D membrane expression in human NK cells supporting the idea that NKG2D transduces different signals upon binding various ligands. Moreover, whether proteolytically shed and exosome-associated soluble NKG2D ligands share with their membrane-bound counterparts the same ability to induce NKG2D-mediated signaling is still a matter of debate. Here, we will review recent studies on the NKG2D/NKG2D ligand biology to summarize and discuss the redundancy and/or diversity in ligand expression, regulation, and receptor specificity

    Ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of NKG2D-DAP10 receptor complexes activates signaling and functions in human NK cells

    Get PDF
    Cytotoxic lymphocytes share the presence of the activating receptor NK receptor group 2, member D (NKG2D) and the signaling-competent adaptor DNAX-activating protein 10 (DAP10), which together play an important role in antitumor immune surveillance. Ligand stimulation induces the internalization of NKG2D-DAP10 complexes and their delivery to lysosomes for degradation. In experiments with human NK cells and cell lines, we found that the ligand-induced endocytosis of NKG2D-DAP10 depended on the ubiquitylation of DAP10, which was also required for degradation of the internalized complexes. Moreover, through combined biochemical and microscopic analyses, we showed that ubiquitin-dependent receptor endocytosis was required for the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and NK cell functions, such as the secretion of cytotoxic granules and the inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ. These results suggest that NKG2D-DAP10 endocytosis represents a means to decrease cell surface receptor abundance, as well as to control signaling outcome in cytotoxic lymphocytes

    Nesting Biology, Sexual Dimorphism, and Populational Morphometric Variation in Podium denticulatum F. Smith, 1856 (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae)

    Get PDF
    Podium denticulatum occurs from Mexico to southern Brazil, including northeastern Argentina. Females use pre-existing cavities to build nests, consisting of cells separated by walls of mud and resin and massively provisioned with paralyzed cockroaches. Trap nests were disposed in three localities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil (Araras, São Carlos, Rifaina), resulting in the collection of 201 nests from December/2003 to June/2007. The founding nests were brought to the laboratory, opened and the pupae transferred to identified vials until the emergence of the adults, when they were then weighed, sexed and stored at -20ºC. The nesting activity was seasonal, with a higher number of nests in the warm and rainy season of the year. The number of constructed cells ranged from one to nine per nest. The emergence rate of adults in the 716 brood cells was 74%, with homogeneous distribution of mortality by egg, larva and pupa stages. This mortality was partly due to parasitism observed in 39% of nests, predominantly by Melittobia sp. and rarely by Diptera (Tachinidae). A 1:1 sex ratio was observed among the newly emerged adults of each locality analyzed. Strong sexual dimorphism was characterized by linear measurements of wings and body mass, with females and males showing a mass between 27-116 mg and 14-70 mg, respectively. The geometric morphometry confirmed this dimorphism and revealed significant variation of wing size and shape among individuals of the analyzed populations, a result that deserves subsequent studies to point out the factors that account for this differentiation
    • …
    corecore