2,630 research outputs found

    Correlations of long-lived chemical species in a middle atmosphere general circulation model

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    Correlations between various chemical species simulated by the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model, a general circulation model with fully interactive chemistry, are considered in order to investigate the general conditions under which compact correlations can be expected to form. At the same time, the analysis serves to validate the model. The results are compared to previous work on this subject, both from theoretical studies and from atmospheric measurements made from space and from aircraft. The results highlight the importance of having a data set with good spatial coverage when working with correlations and provide a background against which the compactness of correlations obtained from atmospheric measurements can be confirmed. It is shown that for long-lived species, distinct correlations are found in the model in the tropics, the extratropics, and the Antarctic winter vortex. Under these conditions, sparse sampling such as arises from occultation instruments is nevertheless suitable to define a chemical correlation within each region even from a single day of measurements, provided a sufficient range of mixing ratio values is sampled. In practice, this means a large vertical extent, though the requirements are less stringent at more poleward latitudes

    Inclusion of Experimental Information in First Principles Modeling of Materials

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    We propose a novel approach to model amorphous materials using a first principles density functional method while simultaneously enforcing agreement with selected experimental data. We illustrate our method with applications to amorphous silicon and glassy GeSe2_2. The structural, vibrational and electronic properties of the models are found to be in agreement with experimental results. The method is general and can be extended to other complex materials.Comment: 11 pages, 8 PostScript figures, submitted to J. Phys.: Condens. Matter in honor of Mike Thorpe's 60th birthda

    Perspective Chapter: The Learning Management System of 2028 and How we Start Planning for this Now

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    It has been said for years that, in the near future the Learning Management System (LMS) will become a thing of the past. Some suggest this should already be the case, but it has not been possible to break our institutional dependence on this technology. In the meantime, institutions have developed sophisticated networks of tools, largely built off the back of LTIs and xAPIs to seamlessly make the LMS a pervasive convenor of learning. These tools include media streaming, virtual classrooms, collaboration tools, plagiarism checking, ePortfolio, voice interaction, peer-review/learning, brainstorming, H5Ps and the list goes on. All that is left for the traditional LMS to do is to mediate these tools, house and collate assessment and scaffold the different learning scenarios. Admittedly it also helps the institution link to other organizational tools such as student management and curriculum management systems. This chapter looks at the future implications and examines a range of views from technology enhanced learning professionals from across the sector. The views being canvased may provide institutions with a framework to help them consider their future directions and how the evolving technology landscape may see newer ways of using emerging technologies to better support or student cohorts

    Strain Relaxation Mechanisms and Local Structural Changes in Si_{1-x}$Ge_{x} Alloys

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    In this work, we address issues pertinent to the understanding of the structural and electronic properties of Si_{1-x} Ge_{x}alloys, namely, (i) how does the lattice constant mismatch between bulk Si and bulk Ge manifests itself in the alloy system? and (ii) what are the relevant strain release mechanisms? To provide answers to these questions, we have carried out an in-depth study of the changes in the local geometric and electronic structures arising from the strain relaxation in Si_{1-x} Ge_{x} alloys using an ab initio molecular dynamics scheme. The optimized lattice constant, while exhibiting a general trend of linear dependence on the composition (Vegard's law), shows a negative deviation from Vegard's law in the vicinity of x=0.5. We delineate the mechanisms responsible for each one of the above features. We show that the radial-strain relaxation through bond stretching is responsible for the overall trend of linear dependence of the lattice constant on the composition. On the other hand, the negative deviation from Vegard's law is shown to arise from the angular-strain relaxation.Comment: 21 pages, 7 figure

    Multi-Jet Event Rates in Deep Inelastic Scattering and Determination of the Strong Coupling Constant

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    Jet event rates in deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA are investigated applying the modified JADE jet algorithm. The analysis uses data taken with the H1 detector in 1994 and 1995. The data are corrected for detector and hadronization effects and then compared with perturbative QCD predictions using next-to-leading order calculations. The strong coupling constant alpha_S(M_Z^2) is determined evaluating the jet event rates. Values of alpha_S(Q^2) are extracted in four different bins of the negative squared momentum transfer~\qq in the range from 40 GeV2 to 4000 GeV2. A combined fit of the renormalization group equation to these several alpha_S(Q^2) values results in alpha_S(M_Z^2) = 0.117+-0.003(stat)+0.009-0.013(syst)+0.006(jet algorithm).Comment: 17 pages, 4 figures, 3 tables, this version to appear in Eur. Phys. J.; it replaces first posted hep-ex/9807019 which had incorrect figure 4

    Multiplicity Structure of the Hadronic Final State in Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

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    The multiplicity structure of the hadronic system X produced in deep-inelastic processes at HERA of the type ep -> eXY, where Y is a hadronic system with mass M_Y< 1.6 GeV and where the squared momentum transfer at the pY vertex, t, is limited to |t|<1 GeV^2, is studied as a function of the invariant mass M_X of the system X. Results are presented on multiplicity distributions and multiplicity moments, rapidity spectra and forward-backward correlations in the centre-of-mass system of X. The data are compared to results in e+e- annihilation, fixed-target lepton-nucleon collisions, hadro-produced diffractive final states and to non-diffractive hadron-hadron collisions. The comparison suggests a production mechanism of virtual photon dissociation which involves a mixture of partonic states and a significant gluon content. The data are well described by a model, based on a QCD-Regge analysis of the diffractive structure function, which assumes a large hard gluonic component of the colourless exchange at low Q^2. A model with soft colour interactions is also successful.Comment: 22 pages, 4 figures, submitted to Eur. Phys. J., error in first submission - omitted bibliograph

    Low Q^2 Jet Production at HERA and Virtual Photon Structure

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    The transition between photoproduction and deep-inelastic scattering is investigated in jet production at the HERA ep collider, using data collected by the H1 experiment. Measurements of the differential inclusive jet cross-sections dsigep/dEt* and dsigmep/deta*, where Et* and eta* are the transverse energy and the pseudorapidity of the jets in the virtual photon-proton centre of mass frame, are presented for 0 < Q2 < 49 GeV2 and 0.3 < y < 0.6. The interpretation of the results in terms of the structure of the virtual photon is discussed. The data are best described by QCD calculations which include a partonic structure of the virtual photon that evolves with Q2.Comment: 20 pages, 5 Figure

    Differential (2+1) Jet Event Rates and Determination of alpha_s in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA

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    Events with a (2+1) jet topology in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA are studied in the kinematic range 200 < Q^2< 10,000 GeV^2. The rate of (2+1) jet events has been determined with the modified JADE jet algorithm as a function of the jet resolution parameter and is compared with the predictions of Monte Carlo models. In addition, the event rate is corrected for both hadronization and detector effects and is compared with next-to-leading order QCD calculations. A value of the strong coupling constant of alpha_s(M_Z^2)= 0.118+- 0.002 (stat.)^(+0.007)_(-0.008) (syst.)^(+0.007)_(-0.006) (theory) is extracted. The systematic error includes uncertainties in the calorimeter energy calibration, in the description of the data by current Monte Carlo models, and in the knowledge of the parton densities. The theoretical error is dominated by the renormalization scale ambiguity.Comment: 25 pages, 6 figures, 3 tables, submitted to Eur. Phys.
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