3,696 research outputs found

    The H1 Forward Track Detector at HERA II

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    In order to maintain efficient tracking in the forward region of H1 after the luminosity upgrade of the HERA machine, the H1 Forward Track Detector was also upgraded. While much of the original software and techniques used for the HERA I phase could be reused, the software for pattern recognition was completely rewritten. This, along with several other improvements in hit finding and high-level track reconstruction, are described in detail together with a summary of the performance of the detector.Comment: Minor revision requested by journal (JINST) edito

    Mechanisms limiting the coherence time of spontaneous magnetic oscillations driven by DC spin-polarized currents

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    The spin-transfer torque from a DC spin-polarized current can generate highly-coherent magnetic precession in nanoscale magnetic-multilayer devices. By measuring linewidths of spectra from the resulting resistance oscillations, we argue that the coherence time can be limited at low temperature by thermal deflections about the equilibrium magnetic trajectory, and at high temperature by thermally-activated transitions between dynamical modes. Surprisingly, the coherence time can be longer than predicted by simple macrospin simulations.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figure

    A new multi-center approach to the exchange-correlation interactions in ab initio tight-binding methods

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    A new approximate method to calculate exchange-correlation contributions in the framework of first-principles tight-binding molecular dynamics methods has been developed. In the proposed scheme on-site (off-site) exchange-correlation matrix elements are expressed as a one-center (two-center) term plus a {\it correction} due to the rest of the atoms. The one-center (two-center) term is evaluated directly, while the {\it correction} is calculated using a variation of the Sankey-Niklewski \cite{Sankey89} approach generalized for arbitrary atomic-like basis sets. The proposed scheme for exchange-correlation part permits the accurate and computationally efficient calculation of corresponding tight-binding matrices and atomic forces for complex systems. We calculate bulk properties of selected transition (W,Pd), noble (Au) or simple (Al) metals, a semiconductor (Si) and the transition metal oxide TiO2O_2 with the new method to demonstrate its flexibility and good accuracy.Comment: 17 pages, 5 figure

    First-Principles Studies of Hydrogenated Si(111)--7√ó\times7

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    The relaxed geometries and electronic properties of the hydrogenated phases of the Si(111)-7√ó\times7 surface are studied using first-principles molecular dynamics. A monohydride phase, with one H per dangling bond adsorbed on the bare surface is found to be energetically favorable. Another phase where 43 hydrogens saturate the dangling bonds created by the removal of the adatoms from the clean surface is found to be nearly equivalent energetically. Experimental STM and differential reflectance characteristics of the hydrogenated surfaces agree well with the calculated features.Comment: REVTEX manuscript with 3 postscript figures, all included in uu file. Also available at http://www.phy.ohiou.edu/~ulloa/ulloa.htm

    Evaluation of Exchange-Correlation Energy, Potential, and Stress

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    We describe a method for calculating the exchange and correlation (XC) contributions to the total energy, effective potential, and stress tensor in the generalized gradient approximation. We avoid using the analytical expressions for the functional derivatives of E_xc*rho, which depend on discontinuous second-order derivatives of the electron density rho. Instead, we first approximate E_xc by its integral in a real space grid, and then we evaluate its partial derivatives with respect to the density at the grid points. This ensures the exact consistency between the calculated total energy, potential, and stress, and it avoids the need of second-order derivatives. We show a few applications of the method, which requires only the value of the (spin) electron density in a grid (possibly nonuniform) and returns a conventional (local) XC potential.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Tunable linear and quadratic optomechanical coupling for a tilted membrane within an optical cavity: theory and experiment

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    We present an experimental study of an optomechanical system formed by a vibrating thin semi-transparent membrane within a high-finesse optical cavity. We show that the coupling between the optical cavity modes and the vibrational modes of the membrane can be tuned by varying the membrane position and orientation. In particular we demonstrate a large quadratic dispersive optomechanical coupling in correspondence with avoided crossings between optical cavity modes weakly coupled by scattering at the membrane surface. The experimental results are well explained by a first order perturbation treatment of the cavity eigenmodes.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figure

    Spin-Transfer Effects in Nanoscale Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

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    We report measurements of magnetic switching and steady-state magnetic precession driven by spin-polarized currents in nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions with low-resistance, < 5 Ohm-micron-squared, barriers. The current densities required for magnetic switching are similar to values for all-metallic spin-valve devices. In the tunnel junctions, spin-transfer-driven switching can occur at voltages that are high enough to quench the tunnel magnetoresistance, demonstrating that the current remains spin-polarized at these voltages

    Numerical atomic orbitals for linear scaling

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    The performance of basis sets made of numerical atomic orbitals is explored in density-functional calculations of solids and molecules. With the aim of optimizing basis quality while maintaining strict localization of the orbitals, as needed for linear-scaling calculations, several schemes have been tried. The best performance is obtained for the basis sets generated according to a new scheme presented here, a flexibilization of previous proposals. The basis sets are tested versus converged plane-wave calculations on a significant variety of systems, including covalent, ionic and metallic. Satisfactory convergence (deviations significantly smaller than the accuracy of the underlying theory) is obtained for reasonably small basis sizes, with a clear improvement over previous schemes. The transferability of the obtained basis sets is tested in several cases and it is found to be satisfactory as well.Comment: 9 pages with 2 encapsulated postscript figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Strong linewidth variation for spin-torque nano-oscillators as a function of in-plane magnetic field angle

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    We measure the microwave signals produced by spin-torque-driven magnetization dynamics in patterned magnetic multilayer devices at room temperature, as a function of the angle of a magnetic field applied in the sample plane. We find strong variations in the frequency linewidth of the signals, with a decrease by more than a factor of 20 as the field is rotated from the magnetic easy axis to the in-plane hard axis. Based on micromagnetic simulations, we identify these variations as due to a transition from spatially incoherent to coherent precession.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figure
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