3,696 research outputs found

### The H1 Forward Track Detector at HERA II

In order to maintain efficient tracking in the forward region of H1 after the
luminosity upgrade of the HERA machine, the H1 Forward Track Detector was also
upgraded. While much of the original software and techniques used for the HERA
I phase could be reused, the software for pattern recognition was completely
rewritten. This, along with several other improvements in hit finding and
high-level track reconstruction, are described in detail together with a
summary of the performance of the detector.Comment: Minor revision requested by journal (JINST) edito

### Mechanisms limiting the coherence time of spontaneous magnetic oscillations driven by DC spin-polarized currents

The spin-transfer torque from a DC spin-polarized current can generate
highly-coherent magnetic precession in nanoscale magnetic-multilayer devices.
By measuring linewidths of spectra from the resulting resistance oscillations,
we argue that the coherence time can be limited at low temperature by thermal
deflections about the equilibrium magnetic trajectory, and at high temperature
by thermally-activated transitions between dynamical modes. Surprisingly, the
coherence time can be longer than predicted by simple macrospin simulations.Comment: 12 pages, 4 figure

### A new multi-center approach to the exchange-correlation interactions in ab initio tight-binding methods

A new approximate method to calculate exchange-correlation contributions in
the framework of first-principles tight-binding molecular dynamics methods has
been developed. In the proposed scheme on-site (off-site) exchange-correlation
matrix elements are expressed as a one-center (two-center) term plus a {\it
correction} due to the rest of the atoms. The one-center (two-center) term is
evaluated directly, while the {\it correction} is calculated using a variation
of the Sankey-Niklewski \cite{Sankey89} approach generalized for arbitrary
atomic-like basis sets. The proposed scheme for exchange-correlation part
permits the accurate and computationally efficient calculation of corresponding
tight-binding matrices and atomic forces for complex systems. We calculate bulk
properties of selected transition (W,Pd), noble (Au) or simple (Al) metals, a
semiconductor (Si) and the transition metal oxide Ti$O_2$ with the new method
to demonstrate its flexibility and good accuracy.Comment: 17 pages, 5 figure

### First-Principles Studies of Hydrogenated Si(111)--7$\times$7

The relaxed geometries and electronic properties of the hydrogenated phases
of the Si(111)-7$\times$7 surface are studied using first-principles molecular
dynamics. A monohydride phase, with one H per dangling bond adsorbed on the
bare surface is found to be energetically favorable. Another phase where 43
hydrogens saturate the dangling bonds created by the removal of the adatoms
from the clean surface is found to be nearly equivalent energetically.
Experimental STM and differential reflectance characteristics of the
hydrogenated surfaces agree well with the calculated features.Comment: REVTEX manuscript with 3 postscript figures, all included in uu file.
Also available at http://www.phy.ohiou.edu/~ulloa/ulloa.htm

### Evaluation of Exchange-Correlation Energy, Potential, and Stress

We describe a method for calculating the exchange and correlation (XC)
contributions to the total energy, effective potential, and stress tensor in
the generalized gradient approximation. We avoid using the analytical
expressions for the functional derivatives of E_xc*rho, which depend on
discontinuous second-order derivatives of the electron density rho. Instead, we
first approximate E_xc by its integral in a real space grid, and then we
evaluate its partial derivatives with respect to the density at the grid
points. This ensures the exact consistency between the calculated total energy,
potential, and stress, and it avoids the need of second-order derivatives. We
show a few applications of the method, which requires only the value of the
(spin) electron density in a grid (possibly nonuniform) and returns a
conventional (local) XC potential.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

### Tunable linear and quadratic optomechanical coupling for a tilted membrane within an optical cavity: theory and experiment

We present an experimental study of an optomechanical system formed by a
vibrating thin semi-transparent membrane within a high-finesse optical cavity.
We show that the coupling between the optical cavity modes and the vibrational
modes of the membrane can be tuned by varying the membrane position and
orientation. In particular we demonstrate a large quadratic dispersive
optomechanical coupling in correspondence with avoided crossings between
optical cavity modes weakly coupled by scattering at the membrane surface. The
experimental results are well explained by a first order perturbation treatment
of the cavity eigenmodes.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figure

### Spin-Transfer Effects in Nanoscale Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

We report measurements of magnetic switching and steady-state magnetic
precession driven by spin-polarized currents in nanoscale magnetic tunnel
junctions with low-resistance, < 5 Ohm-micron-squared, barriers. The current
densities required for magnetic switching are similar to values for
all-metallic spin-valve devices. In the tunnel junctions, spin-transfer-driven
switching can occur at voltages that are high enough to quench the tunnel
magnetoresistance, demonstrating that the current remains spin-polarized at
these voltages

### Numerical atomic orbitals for linear scaling

The performance of basis sets made of numerical atomic orbitals is explored
in density-functional calculations of solids and molecules. With the aim of
optimizing basis quality while maintaining strict localization of the orbitals,
as needed for linear-scaling calculations, several schemes have been tried. The
best performance is obtained for the basis sets generated according to a new
scheme presented here, a flexibilization of previous proposals. The basis sets
are tested versus converged plane-wave calculations on a significant variety of
systems, including covalent, ionic and metallic. Satisfactory convergence
(deviations significantly smaller than the accuracy of the underlying theory)
is obtained for reasonably small basis sizes, with a clear improvement over
previous schemes. The transferability of the obtained basis sets is tested in
several cases and it is found to be satisfactory as well.Comment: 9 pages with 2 encapsulated postscript figures, submitted to Phys.
Rev.

### Strong linewidth variation for spin-torque nano-oscillators as a function of in-plane magnetic field angle

We measure the microwave signals produced by spin-torque-driven magnetization
dynamics in patterned magnetic multilayer devices at room temperature, as a
function of the angle of a magnetic field applied in the sample plane. We find
strong variations in the frequency linewidth of the signals, with a decrease by
more than a factor of 20 as the field is rotated from the magnetic easy axis to
the in-plane hard axis. Based on micromagnetic simulations, we identify these
variations as due to a transition from spatially incoherent to coherent
precession.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figure

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