532 research outputs found

    Nontunneling high-order harmonics from ultra-intense laser-driven tightly bound systems

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    High-order harmonic emission is investigated by numerical solution of the weakly relativistic, two-dimensional Schrödinger equation for the case of ultra-intense laser-driven tightly bound systems (for example, multiply charged ions such as O7+ exposed to laser fields of the order of 1018 W cm-2 at 248 nm). In contrast to their usual substantial decrease, the low-order harmonics having an energy less than the ionization potential exhibit a high efficiency (i.e. intense) plateau with a well defined cutoff. The shape of this plateau is found to depend on the shape of the binding potential. A classical “surfing” mechanism for the generation of these harmonics is proposed that does not involve tunneling and that nevertheless explains the observed cutoff. Thus we call them “nontunneling harmonics.” The significance of relativistic effects for these harmonics is investigated and found to be small, despite the high laser intensity, because of the absence of tunneling

    Dynamics of Nanometer-Scale Foil Targets Irradiated with Relativistically Intense Laser Pulses

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    In this letter we report on an experimental study of high harmonic radiation generated in nanometer-scale foil targets irradiated under normal incidence. The experiments constitute the first unambiguous observation of odd-numbered relativistic harmonics generated by the v×B\vec{v}\times\vec{B} component of the Lorentz force verifying a long predicted property of solid target harmonics. Simultaneously the observed harmonic spectra allow in-situ extraction of the target density in an experimental scenario which is of utmost interest for applications such as ion acceleration by the radiation pressure of an ultraintense laser.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Stable laser-ion acceleration in the light sail regime

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    We present experimental results on ion acceleration with circularly polarized, ultrahigh contrast laser pulses focused to peak intensities of 5×1019 W cm-2 onto polymer targets of a few 10 nanometer thickness. We observed spatially and energetically separated protons and carbon ions that accumulate to pronounced peaks around 2 MeV containing as much as 6.5% of the laser energy. Based on particle-in-cell simulation, we illustrate that an early separation of heavier carbon ions and lighter protons creates a stable interface that is maintained beyond the end of the radiation pressure dominated acceleration process

    Evidence from Studies with Heat-Stressed Caco-2 Cells, C. elegans and Growing Broilers

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    Climatic changes and heat stress have become a great challenge in the livestock industry, negatively affecting, in particular, poultry feed intake and intestinal barrier malfunction. Recently, phytogenic feed additives were applied to reduce heat stress effects on animal farming. Here, we investigated the effects of ginseng extract using various in vitro and in vivo experiments. Quantitative real-time PCR, transepithelial electrical resistance measurements and survival assays under heat stress conditions were carried out in various model systems, including Caco-2 cells, Caenorhabditis elegans and jejunum samples of broilers. Under heat stress conditions, ginseng treatment lowered the expression of HSPA1A (Caco-2) and the heat shock protein genes hsp-1 and hsp-16.2 (both in C. elegans), while all three of the tested genes encoding tight junction proteins, CLDN3, OCLN and CLDN1 (Caco-2), were upregulated. In addition, we observed prolonged survival under heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans, and a better performance of growing ginseng-fed broilers by the increased gene expression of selected heat shock and tight junction proteins. The presence of ginseng extract resulted in a reduced decrease in transepithelial resistance under heat shock conditions. Finally, LC-MS analysis was performed to quantitate the most prominent ginsenosides in the extract used for this study, being Re, Rg1, Rc, Rb2 and Rd. In conclusion, ginseng extract was found to be a suitable feed additive in animal nutrition to reduce the negative physiological effects caused by heat stress. View Full-Tex

    Acquisition of pneumococci specific effector and regulatory Cd4+ T cells localising within human upper respiratory-tract mucosal lymphoid tissue

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    The upper respiratory tract mucosa is the location for commensal Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae colonization and therefore represents a major site of contact between host and bacteria. The CD4(+) T cell response to pneumococcus is increasingly recognised as an important mediator of immunity that protects against invasive disease, with data suggesting a critical role for Th17 cells in mucosal clearance. By assessing CD4 T cell proliferative responses we demonstrate age-related sequestration of Th1 and Th17 CD4(+) T cells reactive to pneumococcal protein antigens within mucosal lymphoid tissue. CD25(hi) T cell depletion and utilisation of pneumococcal specific MHCII tetramers revealed the presence of antigen specific Tregs that utilised CTLA-4 and PDL-1 surface molecules to suppress these responses. The balance between mucosal effector and regulatory CD4(+) T cell immunity is likely to be critical to pneumococcal commensalism and the prevention of unwanted pathology associated with carriage. However, if dysregulated, such responses may render the host more susceptible to invasive pneumococcal infection and adversely affect the successful implementation of both polysaccharide-conjugate and novel protein-based pneumococcal vaccines

    Protein Kinase G Is Involved in Acute but Not in Long-Term Regulation of Renin Secretion

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    Pharmacological inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is, in combination with diuretics, the first-choice treatment for hypertension, although 10-20% of patients do not respond adequately. Next to the RAAS, the nitric oxide/cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) system is the second fundamental blood pressure regulator. Whether both systems influence each other is not well-studied. It has been shown that nitric oxide (NO) supports renin recruitment via activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and subsequent generation of cGMP. Whether this leads to an ensuing activation of PKGs in this context is not known. PKGI alpha, as well as PKGII, is expressed in renin-producing cells. Hence, we analyzed whether these enzymes play a role regarding renin synthesis, secretion, or recruitment. We generated renin-cell-specific PKGI-knockout mice and either stimulated or inhibited the renin system in these mice by salt diets. To exclude the possibility that one kinase isoform can compensate the lack of the other, we also studied double-knockout animals with a conditional knockout of PKGI in juxtaglomerular cells (JG cells) and a ubiquitous knockout of PKGII. We analyzed blood pressure, renin mRNA and renal renin protein content as well as plasma renin concentration. Furthermore, we stimulated the cGMP system in these mice using BAY 41-8543, an sGC stimulator, and examined renin regulation either after acute administration or after 7 days (application once daily). We did not reveal any striking differences regarding long-term renin regulation in the studied mouse models. Yet, when we studied the acute effect of BAY 41-8543 on renin secretion in isolated perfused kidneys as well as in living animals, we found that the administration of the substance led to a significant increase in plasma renin concentration in control animals. This effect was completely abolished in double-knockout animals. However, after 7 days of once daily application, we did not detect a persistent increase in renin mRNA or protein in any studied genotype. Therefore, we conclude that in mice, cGMP and PKG are involved in the acute regulation of renin release but have no influence on long-term renin adjustment