24 research outputs found

    Evidence from Studies with Heat-Stressed Caco-2 Cells, C. elegans and Growing Broilers

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    Climatic changes and heat stress have become a great challenge in the livestock industry, negatively affecting, in particular, poultry feed intake and intestinal barrier malfunction. Recently, phytogenic feed additives were applied to reduce heat stress effects on animal farming. Here, we investigated the effects of ginseng extract using various in vitro and in vivo experiments. Quantitative real-time PCR, transepithelial electrical resistance measurements and survival assays under heat stress conditions were carried out in various model systems, including Caco-2 cells, Caenorhabditis elegans and jejunum samples of broilers. Under heat stress conditions, ginseng treatment lowered the expression of HSPA1A (Caco-2) and the heat shock protein genes hsp-1 and hsp-16.2 (both in C. elegans), while all three of the tested genes encoding tight junction proteins, CLDN3, OCLN and CLDN1 (Caco-2), were upregulated. In addition, we observed prolonged survival under heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans, and a better performance of growing ginseng-fed broilers by the increased gene expression of selected heat shock and tight junction proteins. The presence of ginseng extract resulted in a reduced decrease in transepithelial resistance under heat shock conditions. Finally, LC-MS analysis was performed to quantitate the most prominent ginsenosides in the extract used for this study, being Re, Rg1, Rc, Rb2 and Rd. In conclusion, ginseng extract was found to be a suitable feed additive in animal nutrition to reduce the negative physiological effects caused by heat stress. View Full-Tex

    Separation of Recollision Mechanisms in Nonsequential Strong Field Double Ionization of Ar: The Role of Excitation Tunneling

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    Vector momentum distributions of two electrons created in double ionization of Ar by 25 fs, 0.25PW/cm2 laser pulses at 795 nm have been measured using a “reaction microscope.” At this intensity, where nonsequential ionization dominates, distinct correlation patterns are observed in the two-electron momentum distributions. A kinematical analysis of these spectra within the classical “recollision model” revealed an (e,2e)-like process and excitation with subsequent tunneling of the second electron as two different ionization mechanisms. This allows a qualitative separation of the two mechanisms demonstrating that excitation-tunneling is the dominant contribution to the total double ionization yield

    Non-Sequential Double Ionization of Ne in Intense Laser Pulses: A Coincidence Experiment

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    The dynamics of Neon double ionization by 25 fs, 1.0 PW/cm2 laser pulses at 795 nm has been studied in a many particle coincidence experiment. The momentum vectors of all ejected atomic fragments (electrons and ions) have been measured using combined electron and recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy. Electron emission spectra for double and single ionization will be discussed. In both processes the mean electron energies differ considerably and high energetic electrons with energies of more than 120 eV have been observed for double ionization. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the rescattering model

    Immunomodulatory Activities of Selected Essential Oils

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    Recently, the application of herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of diseases has gained increasing attention. Essential oils (EOs) are generally known to exert various pharmacological effects, such as antiallergic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Current literature involving in vitro and in vivo studies indicates the potential of various herbal essential oils as suitable immunomodulators for the alternative treatment of infectious or immune diseases. This review highlights the cellular effects induced by EOs, as well as the molecular impacts of EOs on cytokines, immunoglobulins, or regulatory pathways. The results reviewed in this article revealed a significant reduction in relevant proinflammatory cytokines, as well as induction of anti-inflammatory markers. Remarkably, very little clinical study data involving the immunomodulatory effects of EOs are available. Furthermore, several studies led to contradictory results, emphasizing the need for a multiapproach system to better characterize EOs. While immunomodulatory effects were reported, the toxic potential of EOs must be clearly considered in order to secure future applications

    Routine preoperative aortic computed tomography angiography is associated with reduced risk of stroke in coronary artery bypass grafting: a propensity-matched analysis.

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    peer reviewedOBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine stroke rates in patients who did or did not undergo routine computed tomography angiography (CTA) aortic imaging before isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained single-centre registry. Between 2009 and 2016, a total of 2320 consecutive patients who underwent isolated CABG at our institution were identified. Propensity score matching was used to create a paired cohort of patients with similar baseline characteristics who did (CTA cohort) or did not (non-CTA cohort) undergo preoperative aortic CTA. The primary end point of the analysis was in-hospital stroke. RESULTS: In 435 propensity score-matched pairs, stroke occurred in 4 patients (0.92%) in the CTA cohort and in 14 patients (3.22%) in the non-CTA cohort (P = 0.017). Routine preoperative aortic CTA was associated with a significantly reduced risk of in-hospital stroke [relative risk 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09-0.86; P = 0.026; absolute risk reduction 2.3%, 95% CI 0.4-4.2; P = 0.017; number needed to treat = 44, 95% CI 24-242]. CONCLUSIONS: A preoperative screening for atheromatous aortic disease using CTA is associated with reduced risk of stroke after CABG. The routine use of preoperative aortic CTA could be applied so that surgical manipulation of the ascending aorta can be selectively reduced or avoided in patients with atheromatous aortic disease

    Ken Wilber's Spectrum Model: Identifying Alternative Soteriological Perspectives

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    I identify two problematic strands of Wilber's transpersonal theory. First, I question Wilber's claim that his spectrum model is supported by the materials of all the world's major mystical traditions. I argue that his integral, hierarchical perspective privileges some traditions but distorts others. Drawing heavily upon Andrew Rawlinson's recent, taxonomic study of mystical traditions, which identifies four authentic routes to spiritual emancipation (Cool Structured, Cool Unstructured, Hot Structured and Hot Unstructured), I argue that while Wilber's model, itself Cool (the source of spiritual liberation lies within oneself) and Structured (developmental, hierarchical), provides a valuable cartography of transpersonal structures and states of consciousness, it cannot adequately handle the materials of the alternative, soteriological paths of Hot traditions (emphasizing the numinous, and as other than oneself) and Unstructured traditions (affirming that there can be no gradual, or progressive, spiritual development at all). Second, and more cursorily, I argue that it is Wilber's Cool Structured perspective that informs his categorisation of Jung as an elevationist. I try to demonstrate that Jung's psychic model of the conjunction of opposites is a Hot Structured one, which provides an alternative, soteriological path for persons whose spiritual needs are different from those addressed by Wilber

    CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing vs. Over-Expression for Fluorescent Extracellular Vesicle-Labeling: A Quantitative Analysis

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    Over-expression of fluorescently-labeled markers for extracellular vesicles is frequently used to visualize vesicle up-take and transport. EVs that are labeled by over-expression show considerable heterogeneity regarding the number of fluorophores on single particles, which could potentially bias tracking and up-take studies in favor of more strongly-labeled particles. To avoid the potential artefacts that are caused by over-expression, we developed a genome editing approach for the fluorescent labeling of the extracellular vesicle marker CD63 with green fluorescent protein using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Using single-molecule sensitive fluorescence microscopy, we quantitatively compared the degree of labeling of secreted small extracellular vesicles from conventional over-expression and the CRISPR/Cas9 approach with true single-particle measurements. With our analysis, we can demonstrate a larger fraction of single-GFP-labeled EVs in the EVs that were isolated from CRISPR/Cas9-modified cells (83%) compared to EVs that were isolated from GFP-CD63 over-expressing cells (36%). Despite only single-GFP-labeling, CRISPR-EVs can be detected and discriminated from auto-fluorescence after their up-take into cells. To demonstrate the flexibility of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing method, we fluorescently labeled EVs using the HaloTagÂŽ with lipid membrane permeable dye, JaneliaFluorÂŽ 646, which allowed us to perform 3D-localization microscopy of single EVs taken up by the cultured cells