1,106 research outputs found

    On the European bison’s rewilding hooves: How to visualize it?:A scientifically based visual communication toolkit for long-term and large spatial scale ecological processes

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    The need for public awareness of scientific findings through effective communication, delivered in easily understandable formats, is rapidly increasing. In this context, art and graphic design can help bridge the communication gap between science and various target groups, both within and outside academia, for a wide range of scientific topics.Centred on the field of conservation ecology, I explored the interdisciplinary relationship between visual arts and natural sciences. I focused on rewilding with European bison as a specific ecological subject, narrowing down to two locations in Poland and the Netherlands. Drawing on my background in scientific illustration and graphic design, a set of questions regarding visual communication in science were developed. How effective are visual communication tools for sharing scientific information? What types of visuals should be used? How should the information be laid out? What is the public’s perception on the format used? What is the process of creation of these visuals and how can these processes improve? To address these questions, a series of studies were conducted, resulting in both textual and visual outcomes. The findings of this project have implications for enhancing communication about European bison research and conservation efforts, with potential application to other related ecological topics. By examining the effectiveness of different types of illustrations, the layout of graphic scientific information, a variety of visual communication formats, and the public’s perception of these visual tools, we shed light on opportunities to visually improve the communication of ecological subjects. These insights also aim to inspire more interdisciplinary studies, investment, and interest in collaborations between visual communication and natural sciences

    Process of stop-motion and motion graphics animation for The Amazing European Bison Journey clip

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    The Amazing European Bison Journey prototype clip shows an extract of the timeline of this species coming back from their near disappearance. It starts in the BiaƂowieĆŒa Forest in Poland in 1919, when they went extinct in the wild. And runs up to 2013 in Zuid-Kennemerland in the Nether-lands, where an initial herd of 6 European bison, translocated in 2007 from Poland, had quadrupled to 24 individuals living in the Dutch dunes. The process of production of this animated documentary is de-scribed starting with the ecological research required. Review of literature, contact with specialist scientists and visitation of Poland and the Netherlands are some of the starting points of the process. Subsequently, the preparation for the animation is described. The initial storyboard was constructed out of the preceding ecological research. Afterwards, the development of the script and its respective narration was recorded. The construction of the sets, props and characters is described; specific emphasis is given to the construction of the European bison. Finally, the assemblage of all the elements is explained and the final results of the animation prototype are revealed. This animation forms part of a broader project, which has research into the effectiveness of a set of visual communication formats at its core, and uses rewilding as its ecological platform. A range of animations, infographics and virtual reality pieces will be eventually compared for their effectiveness using several communication research tools

    Current breeding distributions and predicted range shifts under climate change in two subspecies of Black-tailed Godwits in Asia

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    Habitat loss and shifts associated with climate change threaten global biodiversity, with impacts likely to be most pronounced at high latitudes. With the disappearance of the tundra breeding habitats, migratory shorebirds that breed at these high latitudes are likely to be even more vulnerable to climate change than those in temperate regions. We examined this idea using new distributional information on two subspecies of Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa in Asia: the northerly,bog-breeding L. l. bohaii and the more southerly, steppe-breeding L. l. melanuroides. Based on breeding locations of tagged and molecularly assayed birds, we modelled the current breeding distributions of the two subspecies with species distribution models, tested those models for robustness, and then used them to predict climatically suitable breeding ranges in 2070 according to bioclimatic variables and different climate change scenarios. Our models were robust and showed that climate change is expected to push bohaii into the northern rim of the Eurasian continent. Melanuroides is also expected to shift northward, stopping in the Yablonovyy and Stanovoy Ranges, and breeding elevation is expected to increase. Climatically suitable breeding habitatranges would shrink to 16% and 11% of the currently estimated ranges of bohaii and melanuroides, respectively. Overall, this study provides the first predictions for the future distributions of two little-known Black-tailed Godwit subspecies and highlights the importance of factoring in shifts in bird distribution when designing climate-proof conservation strategies.</p

    Differential limit on the extremely-high-energy cosmic neutrino flux in the presence of astrophysical background from nine years of IceCube data

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    We report a quasi-differential upper limit on the extremely-high-energy (EHE) neutrino flux above 5×1065\times 10^{6} GeV based on an analysis of nine years of IceCube data. The astrophysical neutrino flux measured by IceCube extends to PeV energies, and it is a background flux when searching for an independent signal flux at higher energies, such as the cosmogenic neutrino signal. We have developed a new method to place robust limits on the EHE neutrino flux in the presence of an astrophysical background, whose spectrum has yet to be understood with high precision at PeV energies. A distinct event with a deposited energy above 10610^{6} GeV was found in the new two-year sample, in addition to the one event previously found in the seven-year EHE neutrino search. These two events represent a neutrino flux that is incompatible with predictions for a cosmogenic neutrino flux and are considered to be an astrophysical background in the current study. The obtained limit is the most stringent to date in the energy range between 5×1065 \times 10^{6} and 5×10105 \times 10^{10} GeV. This result constrains neutrino models predicting a three-flavor neutrino flux of $E_\nu^2\phi_{\nu_e+\nu_\mu+\nu_\tau}\simeq2\times 10^{-8}\ {\rm GeV}/{\rm cm}^2\ \sec\ {\rm sr}at at 10^9\ {\rm GeV}$. A significant part of the parameter-space for EHE neutrino production scenarios assuming a proton-dominated composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays is excluded.Comment: The version accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Anisotropic flow of charged hadrons, pions and (anti-)protons measured at high transverse momentum in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=2.76 TeV

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    The elliptic, v2v_2, triangular, v3v_3, and quadrangular, v4v_4, azimuthal anisotropic flow coefficients are measured for unidentified charged particles, pions and (anti-)protons in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Results obtained with the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods are reported for the pseudo-rapidity range ∣η∣<0.8|\eta|<0.8 at different collision centralities and as a function of transverse momentum, pTp_{\rm T}, out to pT=20p_{\rm T}=20 GeV/cc. The observed non-zero elliptic and triangular flow depends only weakly on transverse momentum for pT>8p_{\rm T}>8 GeV/cc. The small pTp_{\rm T} dependence of the difference between elliptic flow results obtained from the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods suggests a common origin of flow fluctuations up to pT=8p_{\rm T}=8 GeV/cc. The magnitude of the (anti-)proton elliptic and triangular flow is larger than that of pions out to at least pT=8p_{\rm T}=8 GeV/cc indicating that the particle type dependence persists out to high pTp_{\rm T}.Comment: 16 pages, 5 captioned figures, authors from page 11, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/186

    Centrality dependence of charged particle production at large transverse momentum in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}} = 2.76 TeV

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    The inclusive transverse momentum (pTp_{\rm T}) distributions of primary charged particles are measured in the pseudo-rapidity range ∣η∣<0.8|\eta|<0.8 as a function of event centrality in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76\sqrt{s_{\rm{NN}}}=2.76 TeV with ALICE at the LHC. The data are presented in the pTp_{\rm T} range 0.15<pT<500.15<p_{\rm T}<50 GeV/cc for nine centrality intervals from 70-80% to 0-5%. The Pb-Pb spectra are presented in terms of the nuclear modification factor RAAR_{\rm{AA}} using a pp reference spectrum measured at the same collision energy. We observe that the suppression of high-pTp_{\rm T} particles strongly depends on event centrality. In central collisions (0-5%) the yield is most suppressed with RAA≈0.13R_{\rm{AA}}\approx0.13 at pT=6p_{\rm T}=6-7 GeV/cc. Above pT=7p_{\rm T}=7 GeV/cc, there is a significant rise in the nuclear modification factor, which reaches RAA≈0.4R_{\rm{AA}} \approx0.4 for pT>30p_{\rm T}>30 GeV/cc. In peripheral collisions (70-80%), the suppression is weaker with RAA≈0.7R_{\rm{AA}} \approx 0.7 almost independently of pTp_{\rm T}. The measured nuclear modification factors are compared to other measurements and model calculations.Comment: 17 pages, 4 captioned figures, 2 tables, authors from page 12, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/284

    Charge separation relative to the reaction plane in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}= 2.76 TeV

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    Measurements of charge dependent azimuthal correlations with the ALICE detector at the LHC are reported for Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 2.76 TeV. Two- and three-particle charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in the pseudo-rapidity range ∣η∣<0.8|\eta| < 0.8 are presented as a function of the collision centrality, particle separation in pseudo-rapidity, and transverse momentum. A clear signal compatible with a charge-dependent separation relative to the reaction plane is observed, which shows little or no collision energy dependence when compared to measurements at RHIC energies. This provides a new insight for understanding the nature of the charge dependent azimuthal correlations observed at RHIC and LHC energies.Comment: 12 pages, 3 captioned figures, authors from page 2 to 6, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/286