91 research outputs found

    Uranium and Associated Heavy Metals in Ovis aries in a Mining Impacted Area in Northwestern New Mexico.

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    The objective of this study was to determine uranium (U) and other heavy metal (HM) concentrations (As, Cd, Pb, Mo, and Se) in tissue samples collected from sheep (Ovis aries), the primary meat staple on the Navajo reservation in northwestern New Mexico. The study setting was a prime target of U mining, where more than 1100 unreclaimed abandoned U mines and structures remain. The forage and water sources for the sheep in this study were located within 3.2 km of abandoned U mines and structures. Tissue samples from sheep (n = 3), their local forage grasses (n = 24), soil (n = 24), and drinking water (n = 14) sources were collected. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Results: In general, HMs concentrated more in the roots of forage compared to the above ground parts. The sheep forage samples fell below the National Research Council maximum tolerable concentration (5 mg/kg). The bioaccumulation factor ratio was >1 in several forage samples, ranging from 1.12 to 16.86 for Mo, Cd, and Se. The study findings showed that the concentrations of HMs were greatest in the liver and kidneys. Of the calculated human intake, Se Reference Dietary Intake and Mo Recommended Dietary Allowance were exceeded, but the tolerable upper limits for both were not exceeded. Food intake recommendations informed by research are needed for individuals especially those that may be more sensitive to HMs. Further study with larger sample sizes is needed to explore other impacted communities across the reservation

    Environmental Contexts of Vulnerable Populations: Implications for Nursing Practice, Research, and Education

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    Health disparities research has been identified as a priority by the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR). Training nurse scholars in Vulnerable Populations (VP) research has been one strategy to address this issue. Involvement of university sponsored pre- and postdoctoral nurse fellows in groupdeveloped projects are coordinated to advance the science of VP. A group of pre- and postdoctoral nurse fellows report on research that illustrates environmentally-induced barriers to health care experienced by VP. Topics cover health disparities, VP research, and culturally appropriate approaches to enhance access and acceptability of quality health care. Five studies are presented that illustrate the interplay of biologic, social, economic, behavioral, environmental, and cultural influences in the health and healthcare of individuals, populations, and sub-groups. These studies have common factors as well as unique barriers requiring exploration for better understanding and culturally appropriate intervention. The studies drew upon the VP Conceptualization Framework (VPCF) to describe the unique barriers encountered. These barriers are of significant concern and have implications for nursing practice, research, and education. Key recommendations to address these barriers are provided

    Population genomics of <i>Escherichia coli</i> in livestock-keeping households across a rapidly developing urban landscape

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    Quantitative evidence for the risk of zoonoses and the spread of antimicrobial resistance remains lacking. Here, as part of the UrbanZoo project, we sampled Escherichia coli from humans, livestock and peri-domestic wildlife in 99 households across Nairobi, Kenya, to investigate its distribution among host species in this rapidly developing urban landscape. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,338 E. coli isolates and found that the diversity and sharing patterns of E. coli were heavily structured by household and strongly shaped by host type. We also found evidence for inter-household and inter-host sharing and, importantly, between humans and animals, although this occurs much less frequently. Resistome similarity was differently distributed across host and household, consistent with being driven by shared exposure to antimicrobials. Our results indicate that a large, epidemiologically structured sampling framework combined with WGS is needed to uncover strain-sharing events among different host populations in complex environments and the major contributing pathways that could ultimately drive the emergence of zoonoses and the spread of antimicrobial resistance

    Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer.

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    All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, 'kataegis', is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy

    Search for dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks in ‚ąös = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks is presented. Final states containing third-generation quarks and miss- ing transverse momentum are considered. The analysis uses 36.1 fb‚ąí1 of proton‚Äďproton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at ‚ąös = 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. No significant excess of events above the estimated backgrounds is observed. The results are in- terpreted in the framework of simplified models of spin-0 dark-matter mediators. For colour- neutral spin-0 mediators produced in association with top quarks and decaying into a pair of dark-matter particles, mediator masses below 50 GeV are excluded assuming a dark-matter candidate mass of 1 GeV and unitary couplings. For scalar and pseudoscalar mediators produced in association with bottom quarks, the search sets limits on the production cross- section of 300 times the predicted rate for mediators with masses between 10 and 50 GeV and assuming a dark-matter mass of 1 GeV and unitary coupling. Constraints on colour- charged scalar simplified models are also presented. Assuming a dark-matter particle mass of 35 GeV, mediator particles with mass below 1.1 TeV are excluded for couplings yielding a dark-matter relic density consistent with measurements

    Atrasentan and renal events in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (SONAR): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial

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    Background: Short-term treatment for people with type 2 diabetes using a low dose of the selective endothelin A receptor antagonist atrasentan reduces albuminuria without causing significant sodium retention. We report the long-term effects of treatment with atrasentan on major renal outcomes. Methods: We did this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at 689 sites in 41 countries. We enrolled adults aged 18‚Äď85 years with type 2 diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)25‚Äď75 mL/min per 1¬∑73 m 2 of body surface area, and a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR)of 300‚Äď5000 mg/g who had received maximum labelled or tolerated renin‚Äďangiotensin system inhibition for at least 4 weeks. Participants were given atrasentan 0¬∑75 mg orally daily during an enrichment period before random group assignment. Those with a UACR decrease of at least 30% with no substantial fluid retention during the enrichment period (responders)were included in the double-blind treatment period. Responders were randomly assigned to receive either atrasentan 0¬∑75 mg orally daily or placebo. All patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was a composite of doubling of serum creatinine (sustained for ‚Č•30 days)or end-stage kidney disease (eGFR <15 mL/min per 1¬∑73 m 2 sustained for ‚Č•90 days, chronic dialysis for ‚Č•90 days, kidney transplantation, or death from kidney failure)in the intention-to-treat population of all responders. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned study treatment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01858532. Findings: Between May 17, 2013, and July 13, 2017, 11 087 patients were screened; 5117 entered the enrichment period, and 4711 completed the enrichment period. Of these, 2648 patients were responders and were randomly assigned to the atrasentan group (n=1325)or placebo group (n=1323). Median follow-up was 2¬∑2 years (IQR 1¬∑4‚Äď2¬∑9). 79 (6¬∑0%)of 1325 patients in the atrasentan group and 105 (7¬∑9%)of 1323 in the placebo group had a primary composite renal endpoint event (hazard ratio [HR]0¬∑65 [95% CI 0¬∑49‚Äď0¬∑88]; p=0¬∑0047). Fluid retention and anaemia adverse events, which have been previously attributed to endothelin receptor antagonists, were more frequent in the atrasentan group than in the placebo group. Hospital admission for heart failure occurred in 47 (3¬∑5%)of 1325 patients in the atrasentan group and 34 (2¬∑6%)of 1323 patients in the placebo group (HR 1¬∑33 [95% CI 0¬∑85‚Äď2¬∑07]; p=0¬∑208). 58 (4¬∑4%)patients in the atrasentan group and 52 (3¬∑9%)in the placebo group died (HR 1¬∑09 [95% CI 0¬∑75‚Äď1¬∑59]; p=0¬∑65). Interpretation: Atrasentan reduced the risk of renal events in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease who were selected to optimise efficacy and safety. These data support a potential role for selective endothelin receptor antagonists in protecting renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of developing end-stage kidney disease. Funding: AbbVie