436 research outputs found

    Создание системы управления электродвигателем на базе микроконтроллера STM32

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    Объектом исследования является система управления электродвигателем на базе микроконтроллера STM32. В работе рассмотрены компоненты системы управления. Рассмотрено программное обеспечение для программирования микроконтроллера STM32, а также протоколы обмена данными UART и Modbus. Показаны этапы создания сопрягающего устройства между диспетчерской станцией и преобразователем частоты. Проведено тестирование и отладка сопрягающего устройства. Результатом выполненной работы является созданное сопрягающее устройство, осуществляющее обмен данными между диспетчерской станцией и преобразователем частоты.The object of the study is the motor control system based on the STM32 microcontroller. The paper considers the components of the control system. The software for programming of the STM32 microcontroller, as well as the UART and Modbus data exchange protocols are considered. The stages of creation of the interface device between the dispatching station and the frequency converter are shown. The testing and debugging of the coupling device was carried out. The result of the performed work is the created coupling device, which performs data exchange between the dispatching station and the frequency converter

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE – on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation

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    One of the ways in which legal services are financed, and indeed shaped, is through private insurance arrangement. Two contrasting types of legal expenses insurance contracts (LEI) seem to dominate in Europe: before the event (BTE) and after the event (ATE) legal expenses insurance. Notwithstanding institutional differences between different legal systems, BTE and ATE insurance arrangements may be instrumental if government policy is geared towards strengthening a market-oriented system of financing access to justice for individuals and business. At the same time, emphasizing the role of a private industry as a keeper of the gates to justice raises issues of accountability and transparency, not readily reconcilable with demands of competition. Moreover, multiple actors (clients, lawyers, courts, insurers) are involved, causing behavioural dynamics which are not easily predicted or influenced. Against this background, this paper looks into BTE and ATE arrangements by analysing the particularities of BTE and ATE arrangements currently available in some European jurisdictions and by painting a picture of their respective markets and legal contexts. This allows for some reflection on the performance of BTE and ATE providers as both financiers and keepers. Two issues emerge from the analysis that are worthy of some further reflection. Firstly, there is the problematic long-term sustainability of some ATE products. Secondly, the challenges faced by policymakers that would like to nudge consumers into voluntarily taking out BTE LEI

    Impacts of the Tropical Pacific/Indian Oceans on the Seasonal Cycle of the West African Monsoon