447 research outputs found

    C6orf10 low-frequency and rare variants in italian multiple sclerosis patients

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    In light of the complex nature of multiple sclerosis (MS) and the recently estimated contribution of low-frequency variants into disease, decoding its genetic risk components requires novel variant prioritization strategies. We selected, by reviewing MS Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), 107 candidate loci marked by intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a remarkable association (p-value <= 5 x 10(-6)). A whole exome sequencing (WES)-based pilot study of SNPs with minor allele frequency (MAF) <= 0.04, conducted in three Italian families, revealed 15 exonic low-frequency SNPs with affected parent-child transmission. These variants were detected in 65/120 Italian unrelated MS patients, also in combination (22 patients). Compared with databases (controls gnomAD, dbSNP150, ExAC, Tuscany-1000 Genome), the allelic frequencies of C6orf10 rs 16870005 and IL2RA rs12722600 were significantly higher (i.e., controls gnomAD, p = 9.89 x 10(-7) and p < 1 x 10(-20)). TET2 rs61744960 and TRAF3 rs138943371 frequencies were also significantly higher, except in Tuscany-1000 Genome. Interestingly, the association of C6orf10 rs16870005 (Ala431Thr) with MS did not depend on its linkage disequilibrium with the HLA-DRB1 locus. Sequencing in the MS cohort of the C6orf10 3' region revealed 14 rare mutations (10 not previously reported). Four variants were null, and significantly more frequent than in the databases. Further, the C6orf10 rare variants were observed in combinations, both intra-locus and with other low-frequency SNPs. The C6orf10 Ser389Xfr was found homozygous in a patient with early onset of the MS. Taking into account the potentially functional impact of the identified exonic variants, their expression in combination at the protein level could provide functional insights in the heterogeneous pathogenetic mechanisms contributing to MS.In light of the complex nature of multiple sclerosis (MS) and the recently estimated contribution of low-frequency variants into disease, decoding its genetic risk components requires novel variant prioritization strategies. We selected, by reviewing MS Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), 107 candidate loci marked by intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a remarkable association (p-value ≤ 5 × 10−6). A whole exome sequencing (WES)-based pilot study of SNPs with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≤ 0.04, conducted in three Italian families, revealed 15 exonic low-frequency SNPs with affected parent-child transmission. These variants were detected in 65/120 Italian unrelated MS patients, also in combination (22 patients). Compared with databases (controls gnomAD, dbSNP150, ExAC, Tuscany-1000 Genome), the allelic frequencies of C6orf10 rs16870005 and IL2RA rs12722600 were significantly higher (i.e., controls gnomAD, p = 9.89 × 10−7 and p < 1 × 10−20). TET2 rs61744960 and TRAF3 rs138943371 frequencies were also significantly higher, except in Tuscany-1000 Genome. Interestingly, the association of C6orf10 rs16870005 (Ala431Thr) with MS did not depend on its linkage disequilibrium with the HLA-DRB1 locus. Sequencing in the MS cohort of the C6orf10 3′ region revealed 14 rare mutations (10 not previously reported). Four variants were null, and significantly more frequent than in the databases. Further, the C6orf10 rare variants were observed in combinations, both intra-locus and with other low-frequency SNPs. The C6orf10 Ser389Xfr was found homozygous in a patient with early onset of the MS. Taking into account the potentially functional impact of the identified exonic variants, their expression in combination at the protein level could provide functional insights in the heterogeneous pathogenetic mechanisms contributing to MS

    A non-invasive approach to monitor chronic lymphocytic leukemia engraftment in a xenograft mouse model using ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide-magnetic resonance imaging (USPIO-MRI).

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    This work was supported by: Associazione Italiana Ricerca sul Cancro (AIRC) [Grant 5 x mille n.9980, (to M.F., F.M. and A. N.)]; AIRC I.G. [n. 14,326 (to M.F.)], [n.10136 and 16,722 (A.N.)], [n.15426 (to F.F.)]. AIRC and Fondazione CaRiCal co-financed Multi Unit Regional Grant 2014 [n.16695 (to F.M.)]. Italian Ministry of Health 5 × 1000 funds (to F.F). A.G R. was supported by Associazione Italiana contro le Leucemie-Linfomi-Mielomi (AIL) Cosenza - Fondazione Amelia Scorza (FAS). S.M. C.M., F.V., L. E., S. B., were supported by AIRC.Peer reviewedPostprin

    Risk prediction of clinical adverse outcomes with machine learning in a cohort of critically ill patients with atrial fibrillation

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    Critically ill patients affected by atrial fibrillation are at high risk of adverse events: however, the actual risk stratification models for haemorrhagic and thrombotic events are not validated in a critical care setting. With this paper we aimed to identify, adopting topological data analysis, the risk factors for therapeutic failure (in-hospital death or intensive care unit transfer), the in-hospital occurrence of stroke/TIA and major bleeding in a cohort of critically ill patients with pre-existing atrial fibrillation admitted to a stepdown unit; to engineer newer prediction models based on machine learning in the same cohort. We selected all medical patients admitted for critical illness and a history of pre-existing atrial fibrillation in the timeframe 01/01/2002-03/08/2007. All data regarding patients' medical history, comorbidities, drugs adopted, vital parameters and outcomes (therapeutic failure, stroke/TIA and major bleeding) were acquired from electronic medical records. Risk factors for each outcome were analyzed adopting topological data analysis. Machine learning was used to generate three different predictive models. We were able to identify specific risk factors and to engineer dedicated clinical prediction models for therapeutic failure (AUC: 0.974, 95%CI: 0.934-0.975), stroke/TIA (AUC: 0.931, 95%CI: 0.896-0.940; Brier score: 0.13) and major bleeding (AUC: 0.930:0.911-0.939; Brier score: 0.09) in critically-ill patients, which were able to predict accurately their respective clinical outcomes. Topological data analysis and machine learning techniques represent a concrete viewpoint for the physician to predict the risk at the patients' level, aiding the selection of the best therapeutic strategy in critically ill patients affected by pre-existing atrial fibrillation

    Long-term follow-up in common variable immunodeficiency: the pediatric-onset and adult-onset landscape

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    IntroductionThe primary aim of this study is to investigate the evolution of the clinical and laboratory characteristics during the time in a longitudinal cohort of pediatric-onset and adult-onset Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) patients in order to identify early predictive features of the disease and immune dysregulation complications.MethodsThis is a retrospective-prospective monocentric longitudinal study spanning from 1984 to the end of 2021. The data of pediatric-onset vs. adult-onset patients have been compared for immunological features and for infectious and non-infectious complications assessed at diagnosis and follow-up.ResultsSeventy-three CVID patients have been enrolled, with a mean of 10.0 years (SD ± 8.17) of prospective follow-up. At diagnosis, infections were observed in 89.0% of patients and immune dysregulation in 42.5% of patients. At diagnosis, 38.6% of pediatric-onset and 20.7% of adult-onset patients presented with only infections. Polyclonal lymphoid proliferation (62.1%) and autoimmunity (51.7%) were more prevalent in the adult-onset than in the pediatric-onset group (polyclonal lymphoid proliferation 52.3% and autoimmunity 31.8%, respectively). Enteropathy was present in 9.1% of pediatric-onset and 17.2% of adult-onset patients. The prevalence of polyclonal lymphoid proliferation increased during follow-up more in pediatric-onset patients (diagnosis 52.3%—follow-up 72.7%) than in adult-onset patients (diagnosis 62.1%—follow-up 72.7%). The cumulative risk to develop immune dysregulation increases according to the time of disease and the time of diagnostic delay. At the same age, pediatric-onset patients have roughly double the risk of having a complication due to immune dysregulation than adult-onset patients, and it increases with diagnostic delay. The analysis of lymphocyte subsets in the pediatric-onset group showed that CD21 low B cells at diagnosis may be a reliable prognostic marker for the development of immune dysregulation during follow-up, as the ROC curve analysis showed (AUC = 0.796). In the adult-onset group, the percentage of transitional B cells measured at diagnosis showed a significant accuracy (ROC AUC = 0.625) in identifying patients at risk of developing immune dysregulation.DiscussionThe longitudinal evaluation of lymphocyte subsets combined with clinical phenotype can improve the prediction of lymphoid proliferation and allow experts to achieve early detection and better management of such complex disorder

    Microenvironmental regulation of the IL-23R/IL-23 axis overrides chronic lymphocytic leukemia indolence

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    Although the progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) requires the cooperation of the microenvironment, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms involved are still unclear. We investigated the interleukin (IL)-23 receptor (IL-23R)/IL-23 axis and found that circulating cells from early-stage CLL patients with shorter time-to-treatment, but not of those with a more benign course, expressed a defective form of the IL-23R complex lacking the IL-12R beta 1 chain. However, cells from both patient groups expressed the complete IL-23R complex in tissue infiltrates and could be induced to express the IL-12R. 1 chain when cocultured with activated T cells or CD40L(+) cells. CLL cells activated in vitro in this context produced IL-23, a finding that, together with the presence of IL-23 in CLL lymphoid tissues, suggests the existence of an autocrine/paracrine loop inducing CLL cell proliferation. Interference with the IL-23R/IL-23 axis using an anti-IL-23p19 antibody proved effective in controlling disease onset and expansion in xenografted mice, suggesting potential therapeutic strategies

    State-of-The-Art and Applications of 3D Imaging Sensors in Industry, Cultural Heritage, Medicine, and Criminal Investigation

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    3D imaging sensors for the acquisition of three dimensional (3D) shapes have created, in recent years, a considerable degree of interest for a number of applications. The miniaturization and integration of the optical and electronic components used to build them have played a crucial role in the achievement of compactness, robustness and flexibility of the sensors. Today, several 3D sensors are available on the market, even in combination with other sensors in a “sensor fusion” approach. An importance equal to that of physical miniaturization has the portability of the measurements, via suitable interfaces, into software environments designed for their elaboration, e.g., CAD-CAM systems, virtual renders, and rapid prototyping tools. In this paper, following an overview of the state-of-art of 3D imaging sensors, a number of significant examples of their use are presented, with particular reference to industry, heritage, medicine, and criminal investigation applications

    Withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a multicenter Italian survey

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    Background: Law 219/2017 was approved in Italy in December 2017, after a years-long debate on the autonomy of healthcare choices. This Law, for the first time in Italian legislation, guarantees the patient's right to request for withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments, including mechanical ventilation (MV). Objective: To investigate the current status of MV withdrawal in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients in Italy and to assess the impact of Law 219/2017 on this practice. Methods: We conducted a Web-based survey, addressed to Italian neurologists with expertise in ALS care, and members of the Motor Neuron Disease Study Group of the Italian Society of Neurology. Results: Out of 40 ALS Italian centers, 34 (85.0%) responded to the survey. Law 219/2017 was followed by an increasing trend in MV withdrawals, and a significant increase of neurologists involved in this procedure (p 0.004). However, variations across Italian ALS centers were observed, regarding the inconsistent involvement of community health services and palliative care (PC) services, and the intervention and composition of the multidisciplinary team. Conclusions: Law 219/2017 has had a positive impact on the practice of MV withdrawal in ALS patients in Italy. The recent growing public attention on end-of-life care choices, along with the cultural and social changes in Italy, requires further regulatory frameworks that strengthen tools for self-determination, increased investment of resources in community and PC health services, and practical recommendations and guidelines for health workers involved

    Mda-9/Syntenin Is Expressed in Uveal Melanoma and Correlates with Metastatic Progression

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    Uveal melanoma is an aggressive cancer that metastasizes to the liver in about half of the patients, with a high lethality rate. Identification of patients at high risk of metastases may provide indication for a frequent follow-up for early detection of metastases and treatment. The analysis of the gene expression profiles of primary human uveal melanomas showed high expression of SDCBP gene (encoding for syndecan-binding protein-1 or mda-9/syntenin), which appeared higher in patients with recurrence, whereas expression of syndecans was lower and unrelated to progression. Moreover, we found that high expression of SDCBP gene was related to metastatic progression in two additional independent datasets of uveal melanoma patients. More importantly, immunohistochemistry showed that high expression of mda-9/syntenin protein in primary tumors was significantly related to metastatic recurrence in our cohort of patients. Mda-9/syntenin expression was confirmed by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry in cultured uveal melanoma cells or primary tumors. Interestingly, mda-9/syntenin showed both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization in cell lines and in a fraction of patients, suggesting its possible involvement in nuclear functions. A pseudo-metastatic model of uveal melanoma to the liver was developed in NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ null mice and the study of mda-9/syntenin expression in primary and metastatic lesions revealed higher mda-9/syntenin in metastases. The inhibition of SDCBP expression by siRNA impaired the ability of uveal melanoma cells to migrate in a wound–healing assay. Moreover, silencing of SDCBP in mda-9/syntenin-high uveal melanoma cells inhibited the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-triggered invasion of matrigel membranes and inhibited the activation of FAK, AKT and Src. Conversely syntenin overexpression in mda-9/syntenin-low uveal melanoma cells mediated opposite effects. These results suggest that mda-9/syntenin is involved in uveal melanoma progression and that it warrants further investigation as a candidate molecular marker of metastases and a potential therapeutic target

    Beta-Blocker Use in Older Hospitalized Patients Affected by Heart Failure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Italian Survey From the REPOSI Register

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    Beta (β)-blockers (BB) are useful in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) and concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nevertheless, the use of BBs could induce bronchoconstriction due to β2-blockade. For this reason, both the ESC and GOLD guidelines strongly suggest the use of selective β1-BB in patients with HF and COPD. However, low adherence to guidelines was observed in multiple clinical settings. The aim of the study was to investigate the BBs use in older patients affected by HF and COPD, recorded in the REPOSI register. Of 942 patients affected by HF, 47.1% were treated with BBs. The use of BBs was significantly lower in patients with HF and COPD than in patients affected by HF alone, both at admission and at discharge (admission, 36.9% vs. 51.3%; discharge, 38.0% vs. 51.7%). In addition, no further BB users were found at discharge. The probability to being treated with a BB was significantly lower in patients with HF also affected by COPD (adj. OR, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.37-0.67), while the diagnosis of COPD was not associated with the choice of selective β1-BB (adj. OR, 95% CI: 1.33, 0.76-2.34). Despite clear recommendations by clinical guidelines, a significant underuse of BBs was also observed after hospital discharge. In COPD affected patients, physicians unreasonably reject BBs use, rather than choosing a β1-BB. The expected improvement of the BB prescriptions after hospitalization was not observed. A multidisciplinary approach among hospital physicians, general practitioners, and pharmacologists should be carried out for better drug management and adherence to guideline recommendations

    Clinical features and outcomes of elderly hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure or both

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    Background and objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) mutually increase the risk of being present in the same patient, especially if older. Whether or not this coexistence may be associated with a worse prognosis is debated. Therefore, employing data derived from the REPOSI register, we evaluated the clinical features and outcomes in a population of elderly patients admitted to internal medicine wards and having COPD, HF or COPD + HF. Methods: We measured socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics, severity and prevalence of comorbidities, clinical and laboratory features during hospitalization, mood disorders, functional independence, drug prescriptions and discharge destination. The primary study outcome was the risk of death. Results: We considered 2,343 elderly hospitalized patients (median age 81 years), of whom 1,154 (49%) had COPD, 813 (35%) HF, and 376 (16%) COPD + HF. Patients with COPD + HF had different characteristics than those with COPD or HF, such as a higher prevalence of previous hospitalizations, comorbidities (especially chronic kidney disease), higher respiratory rate at admission and number of prescribed drugs. Patients with COPD + HF (hazard ratio HR 1.74, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.16-2.61) and patients with dementia (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.06-2.90) had a higher risk of death at one year. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed a higher mortality risk in the group of patients with COPD + HF for all causes (p = 0.010), respiratory causes (p = 0.006), cardiovascular causes (p = 0.046) and respiratory plus cardiovascular causes (p = 0.009). Conclusion: In this real-life cohort of hospitalized elderly patients, the coexistence of COPD and HF significantly worsened prognosis at one year. This finding may help to better define the care needs of this population
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