15 research outputs found

    Selenium nanoparticles modulate histone methylation via lysine methyltransferase activity and S-adenosylhomocysteine depletion

    Get PDF
    At physiological levels, the trace element selenium plays a key role in redox reactions through the incorporation of selenocysteine in antioxidant enzymes. Selenium has also been evaluated as a potential anti-cancer agent, where selenium nanoparticles have proven effective, and are well tolerated in vivo at doses that are toxic as soluble Se. The use of such nanoparticles, coated with either serum albumin or the naturally occurring alkaline polysaccharide chitosan, also serves to enhance biocompatibility and bioavailability. Here we demonstrate a novel role for selenium in regulating histone methylation in ovarian cancer cell models treated with inorganic selenium nanoparticles coated with serum albumin or chitosan. As well as inducing thioredoxin reductase expression, ROS activity and cancer cell cytotoxicity, coated nanoparticles caused significant increases in histone methylation. Specifically, selenium nanoparticles triggered an increase in the methylation of histone 3 at lysines K9 and K27, histone marks involved in both the activation and repression of gene expression, thus suggesting a fundamental role for selenium in these epigenetic processes. This direct function was confirmed using chemical inhibitors of the histone lysine methyltransferases EZH2 (H3K27) and G9a/EHMT2 (H3K9), both of which blocked the effect of selenium on histone methylation. This novel role for selenium supports a distinct function in histone methylation that occurs due to a decrease in S-adenosylhomocysteine, an endogenous inhibitor of lysine methyltransferases, the metabolic product of methyl-group transfer from S-adenosylmethionine in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. These observations provide important new insights into the action of selenium nanoparticles. It is now important to consider both the classic antioxidant and novel histone methylation effects of this key redox element in its development in cancer therapy and other applications

    Hyaluronic Acid-Functionalized Nanomicelles Enhance SAHA Efficacy in 3D Endometrial Cancer Models

    Get PDF
    Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes are upregulated in cancer leading to the development of HDAC inhibiting compounds, several of which are currently in clinical trials. Side effects associated with toxicity and non-specific targeting indicate the need for efficient drug delivery approaches and tumor specific targeting to enhance HDAC efficacy in solid tumor cancers. SAHA encapsulation within F127 micelles functionalized with a surface hyaluronic acid moiety, was developed to target endometrial cancer cells expressing elevated levels of CD44. In vitro viability and morphology analyses was conducted in both 2D and 3D models to assess the translational potential of this approach. Encapsulation enhanced SAHA delivery and activity, demonstrating increased cytotoxic efficacy in 2D and 3D endometrial cancer models. High-content imaging showed improved nanoparticle internalization in 2D and CD44 enhanced penetration in 3D models. In addition, the nano-delivery system enhanced spheroid penetration resulting in cell growth suppression, p21 associated cell cycle arrest, as well as overcoming the formation of an EMT associated phenotype observed in free drug treated type II endometrial cancer cells. This study demonstrates that targeted nanoparticle delivery of SAHA could provide the basis for improving its efficacy in endometrial cancer. Using 3D models for endometrial cancer allows the elucidation of nanoparticle performance and CD44 targeting, likely through penetration and retention within the tumor model

    Complimentary protein extraction methods increase the identification of the Park Grass Experiment metaproteome

    Get PDF
    Although the Park Grass Experiment is an important international reference soil for temperate grasslands, it still lacks the direct extraction of its metaproteome. The identification of these proteins can be crucial to our understanding of soil ecology and major biogeochemical processes. However, the extraction of protein from soil is a technically fraught process due to difficulties with co-extraction of humic material and lack of compatible databases to identify proteins. To address these issues, we combined two protein extraction techniques on Park Grass experiment soil, one based on humic acid removal, namely a modified freeze-dry, heat/thaw/phenol/chloroform (HTPC) method and another which co-extracts humic material, namely an established surfactant method. A broad range of proteins were identified by matching the mass spectra of extracted soil proteins against a tailored Park Grass proteome database. These were mainly in the categories of “protein metabolism”, “membrane transport”, “carbohydrate metabolism”, “respiration” “ribosomal and nitrogen cycle” proteins, enabling reconstitution of specific processes in grassland soil. Protein annotation using NCBI and EBI databases inferred that the Park Grass soil is dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Firmicutes at phylum level and Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Acidobacteria, Streptomyces and Pseudolabrys at genus level. Further functional enrichment analysis enabled us to connect protein identities to regulatory and signalling networks of key biogeochemical cycles, notably the nitrogen cycle. The newly identified Park Grass metaproteome thus provides a baseline on which future targeted studies of important soil processes and their control can be built

    Alginate oligosaccharides enhance the antifungal activity of nystatin against candidal biofilms

    Get PDF
    Background: The increasing prevalence of invasive fungal infections in immuno-compromised patients is a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality. With the rapid emergence of antifungal resistance and an inadequate pipeline of new therapies, novel treatment strategies are now urgently required. Methods: The antifungal activity of the alginate oligosaccharide OligoG in conjunction with nystatin was tested against a range of Candida spp. (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. auris, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis), in both planktonic and biofilm assays, to determine its potential clinical utility to enhance the treatment of candidal infections. The effect of OligoG (0-6%) ± nystatin on Candida spp. was examined in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and growth curve assays. Antifungal effects of OligoG and nystatin treatment on biofilm formation and disruption were characterized using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ATP cellular viability assays. Effects on the cell membrane were determined using permeability assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: MIC and growth curve assays demonstrated the synergistic effects of OligoG (0-6%) with nystatin, resulting in an up to 32-fold reduction in MIC, and a significant reduction in the growth of C. parapsilosis and C. auris (minimum significant difference = 0.2 and 0.12 respectively). CLSM and SEM imaging demonstrated that the combination treatment of OligoG (4%) with nystatin (1 ”g/ml) resulted in significant inhibition of candidal biofilm formation on glass and clinical grade silicone surfaces (p < 0.001), with increased cell death (p < 0.0001). The ATP biofilm disruption assay demonstrated a significant reduction in cell viability with OligoG (4%) alone and the combined OligoG/nystatin (MIC value) treatment (p < 0.04) for all Candida strains tested. TEM studies revealed the combined OligoG/nystatin treatment induced structural reorganization of the Candida cell membrane, with increased permeability when compared to the untreated control (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Antimicrobial synergy between OligoG and nystatin against Candida spp. highlights the potential utility of this combination therapy in the prevention and topical treatment of candidal biofilm infections, to overcome the inherent tolerance of biofilm structures to antifungal agents

    Selenium nanoparticles trigger alterations in ovarian cancer cell biomechanics

    Get PDF
    High dose selenium acts as a cytotoxic agent, with potential applications in cancer treatment. However, clinical trials have failed to show any chemotherapeutic value of selenium at safe and tolerated doses (<90 ÎŒg/day). To enable the successful exploitation of selenium for cancer treatment, we evaluated inorganic selenium nanoparticles (SeNP), and found them effective in inhibiting ovarian cancer cell growth. In both SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell types SeNP treatment resulted in significant cytotoxicity. The two cell types displayed contrasting nanomechanical responses to SeNPs, with decreased surface roughness and membrane stiffness, characteristics of OVCAR-3 cell death. In SKOV-3, cell membrane surface roughness and stiffness increased, both properties associated with decreased metastatic potential. The beneficial effects of SeNPs on ovarian cancer cell death appear cell type dependent, and due to their low in vivo toxicity offer an exciting opportunity for future cancer treatment

    Specific and highly efficient condensation of GC and IC DNA by polyaza pyridinophane derivatives

    Get PDF
    Two bis-polyaza pyridinophane derivatives and their monomeric reference compounds revealed strong interactions with ds-DNA and RNA. The bis-derivatives show a specific condensation of GC- and IC-DNA, which is almost two orders of magnitude more efficient than the well-known condensation agent spermine. The type of condensed DNA was identified as psi-DNA, characterized by the exceptionally strong CD signals. At variance to the almost silent AT(U) polynucleotides, these strong CD signals allow the determination of GC-condensates at nanomolar nucleobase concentrations. Detailed thermodynamic characterisation by ITC reveals significant differences between the DNA binding of the bis- derivative compounds (enthalpy driven) and that of spermine and of their monomeric counterparts (entropy driven). Atomic force microscopy confirmed GC-DNA compaction by the bis-derivatives and the formation of toroid- and rod-like structures responsible for the psi-type pattern in the CD spectra

    Electrochemical impedence spectroscopy enabled CA125 detection; toward early ovarian cancer diagnosis using graphene biosensors

    No full text
    With current diagnostic methods detection of stage 1 or 2 ovarian cancer using CA125 is possible in only 75% of cases. The ability to detect CA125 at lower concentrations could significantly improve such early stage diagnosis. Here, the use of screen‐printed graphene biosensors as a label‐free detection platform for CA125 was evaluated. The sensor was fabricated through deposition of a polyaniline layer via electropolymerisation on to a graphene screen‐printed electrode. The sensor surface was functionalised with anti‐CA125 antibody via covalent cross linking to polyaniline. The fabrication process was characterised through cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The limit of detection achieved was 0.923 ng/ÎŒL across a dynamic range of 0.92 pg/ÎŒL–15.20 ng/ÎŒL and represents the most sensitive CA125 detection reported to date. With sensitivity limits at this level, it will now be possible to conduct clinical trials using serum samples collected from early stage ovarian cancer patients and at risk individuals