824 research outputs found

    Sedentary behaviors and adiposity in young people: causality and conceptual model

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    Research on sedentary behavior and adiposity in youth dates back to the 1980s. Sedentary behaviors, usually screen time, can be associated with adiposity. Although the association usually is small but significant, the field is complex, and results are dependent on what sedentary behaviors are assessed and may be mediated and moderated by other behaviors

    Comparing different accelerometer cut-points for sedentary time in children

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    Actigraph accelerometers are hypothesized to be valid measurements for assessing children\u27s sedentary time. However, there is considerable variation in accelerometer cut-points used. Therefore, we compared the most common accelerometer sedentary cut-points of children performing sedentary behaviors. Actigraph Actitrainer uniaxial accelerometers were used to measure children\u27s activity intensity (29 children, 5-11 years old) during different activities, namely playing computer games, nonelectronic sedentary games, watching television and playing outdoors. A structured protocol was the criterion for assessing the validity of four common cut-points (100, 300, 800, 1100 counts/minute). The median counts during all sedentary behaviors were below the lowest comparison cut-point of 100 cpm. The 75th percentile values for the sedentary behaviors were always below the cut-point of 300 cpm. Our results suggest that the cut-point of <100 cpm is the most appropriate

    Correlates of socio-economic inequalities in women’s television viewing : a study of intrapersonal, social and environmental mediators

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    IntroductionSocio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational) inequalities in women\u27s television viewing.MethodsCross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65) who participated in the \u27Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study\u27 of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level), television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status), social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family) and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities).ResultsMultiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status) and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity) partly explained the educational inequalities in women\u27s television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing.ConclusionsAcknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the neighborhood and promoting friend support for activity.<br /

    Effects of a holistic health program on women\u27s physical activity and mental and spiritual health

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    Intervention studies aimed at promoting increased physical activity have been trialled in many different settings including primary care, worksites and the community. Churches are also potential settings for physical activity promotion. However, little is known about the effectiveness of this setting for promoting physical activity, particularly in Australia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mind, body and spiritually based health promotion program in increasing physical activity and promoting mental and spiritual health. Nineteen women completed the 8-week intervention, and 30 women in a non-health related 8-week program at the same church comprised a comparison group. Pre- and post-program surveys assessed outcome measures. Between-group differences over time were examined using one-way MANOVA\u27s. Physical activity was higher in the intervention group than the comparison group. In contrast to the comparison group, both mental health (depression symptoms) and spiritual health improved significantly more among intervention participants. The data highlight the potential for a church-based setting and holistic approach to health promotion as a successful means of increasing physical activity and promoting mental and spiritual health among Australian women.<br /

    Children\u27s perceptions of their home and neighborhood environments, and their association with objectively measured physical activity: A qualitative and quantitative study

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    Environmental factors may have an important influence on children&rsquo;s physical activity, yet children&rsquo;s perspectives of their home and neighborhood environments have not been widely assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate children&rsquo;s perceptions of their environments, and to examine associations between these perceptions and objectively measured physical activity. The sample consisted of 147, 10-year-old Australian children, who drew maps of their home and neighborhood environments. A subsample of children photographed places and things in these environments that were important to them. The maps were analyzed for themes, and for the frequency with which particular objects and locations appeared. Physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometers. Six themes emerged from the qualitative analysis of the maps and photographs: the family home; opportunities for physical activity and sedentary pursuits; food items and locations; green space and outside areas; the school and opportunities for social interaction. Of the 11 variables established from these themes, one home and two neighborhood factors were associated with children&rsquo;s physical activity. These findings contribute to a broader understanding of children&rsquo;s perceptions of their environment, and highlight the potential importance of the home and neighborhood environments for promoting physical activity behavior.<br /

    Effects of strategies to promote children\u27s physical activity on potential mediators

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    The aim of this paper is to review evidence of the effectiveness of interventions that present physical activity outcomes and potential mediators of behavioural change among 4&ndash;12-year-old children. A systematic search of electronic databases for original research articles published in peer-review journals between January 1985 and the end of June 2006 was carried out. A total of 19 studies that reported intervention effects on physical activity and mediators of behavioural change were identified. The most common mediators reported included physical activity knowledge or beliefs (11 studies); self-efficacy (8 studies); and enjoyment or preference for physical activity (6 studies). Less frequently reported mediators included attitudes, behavioural capability, intentions, outcome expectancies, social norms, social support and self-concept. Seven of the 11 interventions that reported intervention effects on knowledge/beliefs stated positive changes in this mediator. Four of the eight studies that reported intervention effects on self-efficacy had significant improvements; however, only two out of six interventions reported significant improvements in physical activity enjoyment or preference. None of the studies reviewed reported whether changes in these constructs mediated changes in children\u27s physical activity behaviours. Although more than half of the studies reviewed reported a positive intervention effect on children\u27s physical activity, no study carried out a mediating analysis to attempt to identify the mechanisms of change. Future research should more clearly identify the mediators of behavioural change that are being targeted and whether this explains intervention effects.<br /

    Children\u27s perceptions of the use of public open spaces for active free-play

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    Activity performed by children in their free-time may have a significant impact on overall physical activity levels, however, very little is known about the influences on children\u27s active free-play. To examine the role and use of public open spaces, 132 children (6-12 years) from a selection of primary schools participated in small focus group interviews. Children reported that their use of public open spaces was influenced by a combination of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors including; the play equipment and facilities at local parks, lack of independent mobility, urban design features, presence of friends, and personal motivation.<br /

    Educational inequalities in women\u27s depressive symptoms : the mediating role of perceived neighbourhood characteristics

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    Socio-economically disadvantaged (e.g., less educated) women are at a greater risk of depression compared to less disadvantaged women. However, little is known regarding the factors that may explain socioeconomic inequalities in risk of depression. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of perceived neighbourhood factors in mediating the relationship between education and women&rsquo;s risk of depression. Cross-sectional data were provided by 4,065 women (aged 18&ndash;45). Women self-reported their education level, depressive symptoms (CES-D 10), as well as four neighbourhood factors (i.e., interpersonal trust, social cohesion, neighbourhood safety, and aesthetics). Single and multiple mediating analyses were conducted. Clustering by neighbourhood of residence was adjusted by using a robust estimator of variance. Multiple mediating analyses revealed that interpersonal trust was the only neighbourhood characteristic found to partly explain the educational inequalities in women&rsquo;s depressive symptoms. Social cohesion, neighbourhood aesthetics and safety were not found to mediate this relationship. Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, findings suggest that strategies to promote interpersonal trust within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods may help to reduce the educational inequalities in risk of depression amongst women. Further longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to confirm these findings.<br /

    Associations between physical activity and depressive symptoms in women

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    Background : The high prevalence of depression in women is an increasing public health concern. Although studies have found associations between physical activity (PA) and depression, little is known about the optimal domain, dose and social context of PA for reducing the risk of depression. This study aimed to investigate associations between specific components of PA (domain, dose and social context) and odds of depressive symptoms in women.Methods : The sample included 1,501 women, aged 18&ndash;65. Analyses were performed using cross-sectional data collected from a mail-out survey in 2004. The survey included self-report measures of PA behaviours and depressive symptoms. Crude and adjusted (age, marital status and physical health) odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each component of PA and odds of depressive symptoms using logistic regression analyses.Results : Those who reported more than 3.5 hours leisure-time PA per week had lower odds of depressive symptoms when compared to those who undertook less than this. No other domains of PA (eg. work-related, transport-related or domestic activity) were associated with odds of depressive symptoms. Odds of depressive symptoms were lower among women who reported more than 1.5 hours of moderate-intensity (OR = 0.67, CI = 0.45&ndash;0.98) or more than 1.75 hours vigorous-intensity (OR = 0.60, CI = 0.42&ndash;0.84) leisure-time PA per week. Being discouraged to be active by others was associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 2.28, CI = 1.00&ndash;5.16), whilst being active with a family member was associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.61, CI = 0.43&ndash;0.87).Conclusion : Acknowledging the cross-sectional design, these findings suggest that the domain and social context of PA may be more important for mental health among women than simply the total dose of PA.<br /
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