118 research outputs found

    Waning Humoral Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination with Symptomatic Infection after Initiation of Anti-CD20 Treatment in a Patient with Multiple Sclerosis

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    Waning humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination have been reported arguing for booster vaccinations even in healthy populations. Multiple sclerosis (MS) immunotherapy with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies may negatively influence morbidity and mortality of COVID-19. The opportunity to treat patients at risk for a severe COVID-19 course with specific monoclonal antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 represents an important novel measure for patient safety. We report a patient with waning humoral vaccination response around five months after two mRNA vaccination doses upon initiation of ocrelizumab treatment. Symptomatic COVID-19 infection was treated with casirivimab/imdevimab with rapid symptom recovery

    COVID-19 in a Neuroimmunological Outpatient Cohort: The Bernese Experience

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    The COVID-19 pandemic specifically affects the management and treatment of patients with autoimmune neurological disorders. Major concerns include potentially higher risks of infection or severe disease course under certain immunotherapies used to treat those disorders and the influence of COVID-19 on the underlying disease. We present data of the neuroimmunological outpatient department of the University Hospital of Bern (Switzerland). 24 cases were analyzed, 19 of them suffered from Multiple Sclerosis. Of these 24 patients, 6 were hospitalized, 2/6 were treated in the Intensive Care Unit. Possible risk factors for severe course (defined as need for hospitalization) observed in our cohort included cardiovascular risk factors, treatment with B-cell depleting agents, Sphingosine-1 Phosphate Receptor Modulators, and oral steroid therapies. These data are based on a small, retrospective observational cohort and should be interpreted with caution, although they are in line with several other cohort studies

    Vaccine Hesitancy in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: Preparing for the SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Challenge.

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    OBJECTIVE Vaccine hesitancy is a complex public health issue referring to concerns about safety, efficacy, or need for vaccination. Using pneumococcal vaccination, which is recommend in anti-CD20-treated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, as a model, we assessed vaccination behavior in patients with MS to prepare for the upcoming SARS-CoV-2 vaccination challenge. METHODS By a medical chart review, we retrospectively identified patients with MS treated with ocrelizumab at the University Hospital Bern in 2018-2020. Pneumococcal vaccination was discussed with the patients during clinical visits and highlighted in the after-visit summary addressed to the general practitioner before ocrelizumab initiation as part of our clinical standard of care. RESULTS Pneumococcal vaccination was performed in 71/121 (58.7%) of patients, and 50/121 (41.3%) patients were not vaccinated. Patients who did not get a pneumococcal vaccination were younger (no vaccination vs vaccination; mean [95% CI] 40.1 [36.1-44.1] vs 45.4 [41.9-48.8], p = 0.028) and had more frequently a relapsing remitting disease course (no vaccination vs vaccination, n [%]; 43/50 [86.0%] vs 49/71 [69.0%], p = 0.031). Furthermore, patients who did not get vaccination had more frequently a history of comorbid psychiatric disorder (no vaccination vs vaccination, n (%); 12/50 [24.0] vs 7/71 [9.8], p = 0.035). CONCLUSION Our study demonstrated that in our single-center cohort, 41.3% of patients with MS do not get the recommended pneumococcal vaccination. Future research should focus on vaccine hesitancy in the vulnerable cohort of patients with MS to improve the safety of MS immunotherapies

    Application of the "risk of ambulatory disability" (RoAD) score in a "real-world" single-center multiple sclerosis cohort.

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    Survival analysis of reaching EDSS ≥4.0 based on RoAD score ≥4 (dashed line) and <4 (solid line) by Cox regression analysis. (A) Unadjusted regression analysis. (B) Regression controlled for sex and immunotherapy groups, and the trajectory of treatment changes during follow-up

    Differences in morphology and visual function of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody and multiple sclerosis associated optic neuritis.

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    BACKGROUND Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G associated optic neuritis (MOG-ON) is a recently described entity. Recent studies have shown that MOG-ON has a more severe clinical presentation than classic optic neuritis (ON). OBJECTIVE This study aimed to define morphological characteristics of MOG-ON, correlate these with clinical characteristics and compare them with multiple sclerosis associated ON (MS-ON) and healthy controls (CTRL). METHODS In a retrospective study, we included MOG-ON and MS-ON patients seen between 2011 and 2018 at the University Hospital Bern. Data from clinical examination, perimetry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were analyzed. RESULTS A total of 66 eyes of 43 patients were included; 22 MS-ON and 33 CTRL eyes were sex- and age-matched to 11 MOG-ON eyes. We found significantly worse visual acuity at nadir, but better recovery and thinner global peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in MOG-ON patients compared to MS-ON patients. Both groups exhibited irregular thinning of the macular ganglion cell layer. Furthermore, the visual acuity and visual field parameters correlated to retinal layer thickness only in MOG-ON eyes. CONCLUSION In comparison to MS-ON, MOG-ON is associated with more prominent acute vision loss and more pronounced global thinning of the pRNFL. Both entities result in similar final visual acuity and atrophy of the macular ganglion cell layer

    The impact of immunotherapies on COVID-19 case fatality rates during the US vaccination campaign: a multidisciplinary open data analysis using FDA Adverse Event Reporting System and Our World in Data.

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    Introduction: Patients under immunotherapies were excluded from the pivotal trials of vaccinations against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and no population-level data on disease outcomes such as case fatality rates in relation to vaccination coverage exist. Our study aims to fill this gap by investigating whether CFRs in patients with immunotherapies decrease with increasing vaccination coverage in the total population. Methods: We combined aggregated open source data on COVID-19 vaccination coverage from "Our World in Data" with publicly available anonymized COVID-19 case reports from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System to compute COVID-19 CFRs for patients under immunotherapy at different vaccination coverage levels in the total population. CFRs at different vaccination coverage levels were then compared to CFRs before vaccination campaign start. Results: While we found an overall decrease in CFRs on population level with increasing vaccination coverage, we found no decrease in people using anti-CD20 or glucocorticoids. Discussion: Risk-mitigation strategies on an individual- and population-level are thus still needed to lower the probability of fatal SARS-CoV2 infection for these vulnerable populations

    Growing importance of brain morphometry analysis in the clinical routine: The hidden impact of MR sequence parameters.

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    Volumetric assessment based on structural MRI is increasingly recognized as an auxiliary tool to visual reading, also in examinations acquired in the clinical routine. However, MRI acquisition parameters can significantly influence these measures, which must be considered when interpreting the results on an individual patient level. This Technical Note shall demonstrate the problem. Using data from a dedicated experiment, we show the influence of two crucial sequence parameters on the GM/WM contrast and their impact on the measured volumes. A simulated contrast derived from acquisition parameters TI/TR may serve as surrogate and is highly correlated (r=0.96) with the measured contrast

    Characteristic retinal atrophy pattern allows differentiation between pediatric MOGAD and MS after a single optic neuritis episode

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    Optical coherence tomography; Optic neuritis; Pediatric patientsTomografía de coherencia óptica; Neuritis óptica; Pacientes pediátricosTomografia de coherència òptica; Neuritis òptica; Pacients pediàtricsBackground Optic neuritis (ON) is the most prevalent manifestation of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MSped) and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGADped) in children > 6 years. In this study, we investigated retinal atrophy patterns and diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in differentiating between both diseases after the first ON episode. Methods Patients were retrospectively identified in eight tertial referral centers. OCT, VEP and high/low-contrast visual acuity (HCVA/LCVA) have been investigated > 6 months after the first ON. Prevalence of pathological OCT findings was identified based on data of 144 age-matched healthy controls. Results Thirteen MOGADped (10.7 ± 4.2 years, F:M 8:5, 21 ON eyes) and 21 MSped (14.3 ± 2.4 years, F:M 19:2, 24 ON eyes) patients were recruited. We observed a significantly more profound atrophy of both peripapillary and macular retinal nerve fiber layer in MOGADped compared to MSped (pRNFL global: 68.2 ± 16.9 vs. 89.4 ± 12.3 µm, p < 0.001; mRNFL: 0.12 ± 0.01 vs. 0.14 ± 0.01 mm3, p < 0.001). Neither other macular layers nor P100 latency differed. MOGADped developed global atrophy affecting all peripapillary segments, while MSped displayed predominantly temporal thinning. Nasal pRNFL allowed differentiation between both diseases with the highest diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.902, cutoff < 62.5 µm, 90.5% sensitivity and 70.8% specificity for MOGADped). OCT was also substantially more sensitive compared to VEP in identification of ON eyes in MOGAD (pathological findings in 90% vs. 14%, p = 0.016). Conclusion First MOGAD-ON results in a more severe global peripapillary atrophy compared to predominantly temporal thinning in MS-ON. Nasal pRNFL allows differentiation between both diseases with the highest accuracy, supporting the additional diagnostic value of OCT in children with ON.Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL. No

    An algorithm using clinical data to predict the optimal individual glucocorticoid dosage to treat multiple sclerosis relapses.

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    Background Glucocorticoid (GC) pulse therapy is used for multiple sclerosis (MS) relapse treatment; however, GC resistance is a common problem. Considering that GC dosing is individual with several response-influencing factors, establishing a predictive model, which supports clinicians to estimate the maximum GC dose above which no additional therapeutic value can be expected presents a huge clinical need. Method We established two, independent retrospective cohorts of MS patients. The first was an explorative cohort for model generation, while the second was established for its validation. Using the explorative cohort, a multivariate regression analysis with the GC dose used as the dependent variable and serum vitamin D (25D) concentration, sex, age, EDSS, contrast enhancement on cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), immune therapy, and the involvement of the optic nerve as independent variables was established. Results In the explorative cohort, 113 MS patients were included. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) serum concentration and the presence of optic neuritis were independent predictors of the GC dose needed to treat MS relapses [(25D): -25.95 (95% confidence interval (CI)): -47.40 to -4.49; p = 0.018; optic neuritis: 2040.51 (95% CI: 584.64-3496.36), p = 0.006]. Validation of the multivariate linear regression model was performed within a second cohort. Here, the predicted GC dose did not differ significantly from the dose administered in clinical routine (mean difference: -843.54; 95% CI: -2078.08-391.00; n = 30, p = 0.173). Conclusion Our model could predict the GC dose given in clinical, routine MS relapse care, above which clinicians estimate no further benefit. Further studies should validate and improve our algorithm to help the implementation of predictive models in GC dosing
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