33 research outputs found

    Paracrine IL-33 Stimulation Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Macrophage Activation

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    BACKGROUND: IL-33, a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, provokes Th2-type inflammation accompanied by accumulation of eosinophils through IL-33R, which consists of ST2 and IL-1RAcP. We previously demonstrated that macrophages produce IL-33 in response to LPS. Some immune responses were shown to differ between ST2-deficient mice and soluble ST2-Fc fusion protein-treated mice. Even in anti-ST2 antibody (Ab)-treated mice, the phenotypes differed between distinct Ab clones, because the characterization of such Abs (i.e., depletion, agonistic or blocking Abs) was unclear in some cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the precise role of IL-33, we newly generated neutralizing monoclonal Abs for IL-33. Exogenous IL-33 potentiated LPS-mediated cytokine production by macrophages. That LPS-mediated cytokine production by macrophages was suppressed by inhibition of endogenous IL-33 by the anti-IL-33 neutralizing mAbs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that LPS-mediated macrophage activation is accelerated by macrophage-derived paracrine IL-33 stimulation

    Two-particle correlations in azimuthal angle and pseudorapidity in inelastic p + p interactions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

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    Results on two-particle ΔηΔϕ correlations in inelastic p + p interactions at 20, 31, 40, 80, and 158 GeV/c are presented. The measurements were performed using the large acceptance NA61/SHINE hadron spectrometer at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The data show structures which can be attributed mainly to effects of resonance decays, momentum conservation, and quantum statistics. The results are compared with the Epos and UrQMD models.ISSN:1434-6044ISSN:1434-605

    Transcriptional Regulation of the Nitrile Hydratase Gene Cluster in Pseudomonas chlororaphis B23▿

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    An enormous amount of nitrile hydratase (NHase) is inducibly produced by Pseudomonas chlororaphis B23 after addition of methacrylamide as the sole nitrogen source to a medium. The expression pattern of the P. chlororaphis B23 NHase gene cluster in response to addition of methacrylamide to the medium was investigated. Recently, we reported that the NHase gene cluster comprises seven genes (oxdA, amiA, nhpA, nhpB, nhpC, nhpS, and acsA). Sequence analysis of the 1.5-kb region upstream of the oxdA gene revealed the presence of a 936-bp open reading frame (designated nhpR), which should encode a protein with a molecular mass of 35,098. The deduced amino acid sequence of the nhpR product showed similarity to the sequences of transcriptional regulators belonging to the XylS/AraC family. Although the transcription of the eight genes (nhpR, oxdA, amiA, nhpABC, nhpS, and acsA) in the NHase gene cluster was induced significantly in the P. chlororaphis B23 wild-type strain after addition of methacrylamide to the medium, transcription of these genes in the nhpR disruptant was not induced, demonstrating that nhpR codes for a positive transcriptional regulator in the NHase gene cluster. A reverse transcription-PCR experiment revealed that five genes (oxdA, amiA, nhpA, nhpB, and nhpC) are cotranscribed, as are two other genes (nhpS and acsA). The transcription start sites for nhpR, oxdA, nhpA, and nhpS were mapped by primer extension analysis, and putative −12 and −24 σ54-type promoter binding sites were identified. NhpR was found to be the first transcriptional regulator of NHase belonging to the XylS/AraC family