2 research outputs found

    Integrated Proteomic and Metabolomic Profiling of Phytophthora cinnamomi Attack on Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa) Reveals Distinct Molecular Reprogramming Proximal to the Infection Site and Away from It

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    Phytophthora cinnamomi is one of the most invasive tree pathogens that devastates wild and cultivated forests. Due to its wide host range, knowledge of the infection process at the molecular level is lacking for most of its tree hosts. To expand the repertoire of studied Phytophthora-woody plant interactions and identify molecular mechanisms that can facilitate discovery of novel ways to control its spread and damaging effects, we focused on the interaction between P. cinnamomi and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), an economically important tree for the wood processing industry. By using a combination of proteomics, metabolomics, and targeted hormonal analysis, we mapped the effects of P. cinnamomi attack on stem tissues immediately bordering the infection site and away from it. P. cinnamomi led to a massive reprogramming of the chestnut proteome and accumulation of the stress-related hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), indicating that stem inoculation can be used as an easily accessible model system to identify novel molecular players in P. cinnamomi pathogenicity.O

    Cytokinin modulates the metabolic network of sulfur and glutathione

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    The phytohormone cytokinin is implicated in a range of growth, developmental, and defense processes. A growing body of evidence supports a crosstalk between cytokinin and nutrient signaling pathways, such as nitrate availability. Cytokinin signaling regulates sulfur-responsive gene expression, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and their impact on sulfur-containing metabolites have not been systematically explored. Using a combination of genetic and pharmacological tools, we investigated the interplay between cytokinin signaling and sulfur homeostasis. Exogenous cytokinin triggered sulfur starvation-like gene expression accompanied by a decrease in sulfate and glutathione content. This process was uncoupled from the activity of the major transcriptional regulator of sulfate starvation signaling SULFUR LIMITATION 1 and an important glutathione-degrading enzyme, gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase 2;1, expression of which was robustly up-regulated by cytokinin. Conversely, glutathione accumulation was observed in mutants lacking the cytokinin receptor ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE 3 and in cytokinin-deficient plants. Cytokinin-deficient plants displayed improved root growth upon exposure to glutathione-depleting chemicals which was attributed to a higher capacity to maintain glutathione levels. These results shed new light on the interplay between cytokinin signaling and sulfur homeostasis. They position cytokinin as an important modulator of sulfur uptake, assimilation, and remobilization in plant defense against xenobiotics and root growth. Cytokinins induce transcriptional changes similar to sulfate starvation response and modulate the contents of sulfur-containing metabolites