9 research outputs found

    Dynamical orbital evolution of asteroids and planetesimals across distinct chemical reservoirs due to accretion growth of planets in the early solar system

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    N-body numerical simulations code for the orbital motion of asteroids/planetesimals within the asteroid belt under the gravitational influence of the sun and the accreting planets has been developed. The aim is to make qualitative, and to an extent a semi-quantitative argument, regarding the possible extent of radial mixing and homogenization of planetesimal reservoirs of the two observed distinct spectral types , viz., the S-type and C-type, across the heliocentric distances due to their dynamical orbital evolution, thereby, eventually leading to the possible accretion of asteroids having chemically diverse constituents. The spectral S-type and C-type asteroids are broadly considered as the parent bodies of the two observed major meteoritic dichotomy classes, namely, the non-carbonaceous (NC) and carbonaceous (CC) meteorites, respectively. The present analysis is performed to understand the evolution of the observed dichotomy and its implications due to the nebula and early planetary processes during the initial 10 Myrs (Million years). The homogenization across the two classes is studied in context to the accretion timescales of the planetesimals with respect to the half-life of the potent planetary heat source, 26Al. The accretion over a timescale of ~1.5 Myr. possibly resulted in the planetary-scale differentiation of planetesimals to produce CC and NC achondrites and iron meteorite parent bodies, whereas, the prolonged accretion over a timescale of 2-5 Myrs. resulted in the formation of CC and NC chondrites. Our simulation results indicate a significant role of the initial eccentricities and the masses of the accreting giant planets, specifically, Jupiter and Saturn, in triggering the eccentricity churning of the planetesimals across the radial distances......Comment: Accepte

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Stellar sources of the short-lived radionuclides in the early solar system

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    We discuss the possible stellar sources of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) known to have been present in the early solar system (26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn, 60Fe, 107Pd, 129I, 182Hf, 244Pu). SLRs produced primarily by irradiation (7Be, 10Be) are not discussed in this paper. We evaluate the role of the galactic background in explaining the inventory of SLRs in the early solar system. We review the nucleosynthetic processes that produce the different SLRs and place the processes in the context of stellar evolution of stars from 1 to 120 M. The ejection of newly synthesized SLRs from these stars is also discussed. We then examine the extent to which each stellar source can, by itself, explain the relative abundances of the different SLRs in the early solar system, and the probability that each source would have been in the right place at the right time to provide the SLRs. We conclude that intermediate-mass AGB stars and massive stars in the range from ~20 to ~60 M are the most plausible sources. Low-mass AGB stars fail to produce enough 60Fe. Core-collapse Type II supernovae from stars with initial masses of 20 M produce too much 60Fe and 53Mn. Sources such as novae, Type Ia supernovae, and core-collapse supernovae of O-Ne-Mg white dwarfs do not appear to provide the SLRs in the correct proportions. However, intermediate-mass AGB stars cannot provide 53Mn or the r-process elements, so if an AGB star provided the 41Ca, 36Cl, 26Al, 60Fe, and 107Pd, and if a late stellar source is required for 53Mn and the r-process elements, then two types of sources would be required. A separate discussion of the production of r-process elements highlights the difficulties in modeling their production. There appear to be two sources of r-process elements, one that produces the heavy r-process elements, including the actinides, and one that produces the elements from N to Ge and the elements ~110 A ~130. These can be assigned to SNII explosions of stars of ≤11 M and stars of 12-25 M, respectively. More-massive stars, which leave black holes as supernova remnants, apparently do not produce r-process elements

    Isotopic records in CM hibonites: Implications for timescales of mixing of isotope reservoirs in the solar nebula

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    The magnesium isotopic compositions of 26 hibonite-bearing inclusions from the CM chondrite Murchison, as well as isotopic measurements on a subset of these samples for oxygen, titanium, and lithium-beryllium-boron are reported along with oxygen isotopi