45 research outputs found

    Information processing in stated preference surveys A case study on urban gardens

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    For valid preference elicitation, stated preference surveys must provide information on the good to be valued, and respondents must process and recall the information. Previous studies show that the amount and type of information can affect stated preferences and the validity of value estimates, but how respondents process this information has been less researched. Some studies find correlations between preferences and respondent engagement with the information, but our study is the first to randomly and exogenously manipulate factors of engagement in a stated preference survey. Drawing on stated preference guidance and psychological concepts, we estimate the effect of quiz questions (asking about the content of the information) and self -reference questions (asking how the information personally relates to the respondent) on (i) engagement, (ii) information recall, and (iii) stated preferences in a discrete choice experiment survey valuing the ecosystem services of urban gardens in the German cities of Berlin and Stuttgart. Our results indicate that respondents spend more time on the information page when confronted with quiz rather than self-reference questions. For both question types, we do not find effects on recall or stated preferences. The results suggest that questions which increase engagement offer no simple fix to enhance information processing. Thus, alternative ways of reinforcing engagement, comprehension, and information recall in stated preference surveys should be developed and applied

    Information, consequentiality and credibility in stated preference surveys: A choice experiment on climate adaptation

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    Information provided in valuation surveys has been shown to afect stated preferences, which in turn may matter for the validity and reliability of survey-based value estimates. Although information efects are widely documented in stated preference studies, the reasons underlying the efects are less established. We focus on information about the policy context of the valuation scenario and examine two pathways which may help explain how including such information in a survey afects stated preferences. We hypothesize and empirically analyze whether the information efects on stated preferences can emerge as a result of changed perceptions about (1) the survey consequentiality and (2) the credibility of the valuation scenario upon facing the additional information. Our results confrm that the frequently found information efects can be present in the context of urban green and climate adaptation. The role of the additional information appears to be negligible for consequentiality perceptions. In contrast, the additional information strengthens the perceived credibility, and this may partially explain the information efects on stated preferences. We conclude that stated preference research may beneft from an increased attention to perceived credibility of the valuation scenario

    Holistische Bewertung von Ökosystemleistungen - Äpfel, Birnen und Biodiversität

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    Entscheidungen zum Landmanagement haben stets vieldimensionale Auswirkungen. Das Konzept der Ökosystemleistungen erleichtert die Verständigung in interdisziplinären Teams und kann so dabei helfen, diese Auswirkungen besser zu verstehen

    Learning about German farmers’ willingness to cooperate from public goods games and expert predictions

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    There is a growing interest in collective contracts to address agri-environmental policy goals at landscape scales. Yet, little is known about farmers’ general willingness to cooperate. We developed four treatments of a linear public goods game to investigate farmers’ willingness to cooperate: (1) heterogeneous endowments, (2) leading-by-example, (3) social norms, and (4) pinpointing the socially optimal solution. Based on a sample of 358 German farmers, we find that contributions reach more than twothirds of the initial endowment across different treatments on average. Nudging the socially optimal solution is the most effective treatment. In addition to the experiment, we elicited incentivized predictions on experimental outcomes from 212 experts. Expert beliefs on treatment effects appear to be calibrated on laboratory studies, highlighting the need to conduct, communicate, and discuss experimental studies outside the laboratory. Young female academics with an Economics background most accurately predict farmers’ behaviour in the experiment

    Ă–kosystemleistungen

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    EinfĂĽhrung in das Schwerpunktthem

    Adolescent valuation of CARIES-QC-U: a child-centred preference-based measure of dental caries

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    Objectives: This study develops an adolescent value set for a child-centred dental caries-specific measure of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) based upon CARIES-QC (Caries Impacts and Experiences Questionnaire for Children). This study develops a new approach to valuing child health by eliciting adolescent preferences and anchoring these onto the 1-0 full health-dead QALY (quality adjusted life year) scale using ordinal adult preferences.Methods: Two online surveys were created to elicit preferences for the CARIES-QC classification system. The first comprised best-worst scaling (BWS) tasks for completion by adolescents aged 11-16 years. The second comprised discrete choice experiment tasks with a duration attribute (DCETTO) for completion by adults aged over 18 years. Preferences were modelled using the conditional logit model. Mapping regressions anchored the adolescent BWS data onto the QALY scale using adult DCETTO values, since the BWS survey data alone cannot generate anchored values.Results: 723 adolescents completed the BWS survey and 626 adults completed the DCE(TTO )survey. The samples were representative of UK adolescent and adult populations. Fully consistent and robust models were produced for both BWS and DCETTO data. BWS preferences were mapped onto DCETTO values, resulting utility estimates for each health state defined by the classification system.Conclusion: This is the first measure with predetermined scoring based on preferences to be developed specifically for use in child oral health research, and uses a novel technique to generate a value set using adolescent preferences. The estimates can be used to generate QALYs in economic evaluations of interventions to improve children's oral health

    Quality Uncertainty and the Market for Renewable Energy: Evidence from German Consumers

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    Consumers can choose from a wide range of electricity supply contracts, including green power options. Electricity produced from renewable energy involves information asymmetries. With a sample of more than 2,000 German electricity consumers, we tested the proposition of a “lemon market” for renewable energy in a discrete choice experiment. Specifically, we found that, compared to investor-owned firms, additional willingness-to-pay (WTP) for renewable energy is approximately double when offered by cooperatives or municipally-owned electricity utilities. Consumers who are experienced with switching suppliers have an additional WTP of one Eurocent per kilowatt hour for cooperatives and two Eurocents for public enterprises. The results demonstrate that organizational transformation in dynamically-changing electricity markets is not only driven by political initiatives but also by consumers’ choices on the market. Public policy may reduce information asymmetries by promoting government labeling of green energy products

    Are Consumers Willing to Pay More for Electricity from Cooperatives? Results from an Online Choice Experiment in Germany

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    With liberalization in 1998, numerous firms have entered the German retail electricity market, including newly formed cooperatives. Based on Transaction Cost Economics, we develop a theoretical framework seeking to explain preferences for electricity supplied by cooperatives from a consumer perspective. Drawing on a convenience sample of 287 German electricity consumers and Choice Experiment data from an online survey, we estimate Willingness-to-Pay values for organizational attributes of electricity suppliers, while accounting for observed and unobserved heterogeneity. Consumers in the sample exhibit a large Willingness-to-Pay for renewable energy. Our results also indicate a substantial Willingness-to-Pay for transparent pricing, participation in decision making, and local suppliers. Democratic decision making – a distinct feature of cooperatives – exhibits positive Willingness-to-Pay values for approximately one fifth of the sample. Taken together, our findings suggest a slightly higher Willingness-to-Pay for electricity produced by cooperatives. Limitations of applied sampling and other important aspects of energy transition are also discussed

    Quality Uncertainty and the Market for Renewable Energy: Evidence from German Consumers

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    Consumers can choose from a wide range of electricity supply contracts, including green power options. Electricity produced from renewable energy involves information asymmetries. With a sample of more than 2,000 German electricity consumers, we tested the proposition of a “lemon market” for renewable energy in a discrete choice experiment. Specifically, we found that, compared to investor-owned firms, additional willingness-to-pay (WTP) for renewable energy is approximately double when offered by cooperatives or municipally-owned electricity utilities. Consumers who are experienced with switching suppliers have an additional WTP of one Eurocent per kilowatt hour for cooperatives and two Eurocents for public enterprises. The results demonstrate that organizational transformation in dynamically-changing electricity markets is not only driven by political initiatives but also by consumers’ choices on the market. Public policy may reduce information asymmetries by promoting government labeling of green energy products
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