65 research outputs found


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    Epigenetic modifications, arising from sub-cellular shifts in histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and localization, present promising strategies for diverse cancer treatments. HDACs, enzymes responsible for post-translational histone modifications, induce these epigenetic changes by removing acetyl groups from őĶ-N-acetyl-lysine residues on histones, thereby suppressing gene transcription. Within the HDAC group, class IIa HDACs are notable for their responsiveness to extracellular signals, bridging the gap between external stimuli, plasma membrane, and genome through nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation. This localization offers two significant mechanisms for cancer treatment: nuclear accumulation of HDACs represses oncogenic transcription factors, such as myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), triggering various cell death pathways. Conversely, cytoplasmic HDAC accumulation acts similarly to HDAC inhibitors by silencing genes. My dissertation introduces an innovative approach for glioblastoma and breast cancer treatment by investigating the application of microsecond pulsed electric fields. It particularly focuses on HDAC4, a class IIa HDAC overexpressed in these cancers. Beyond demonstrating HDAC4 translocation, my research delves into the intricate roles of kinases and phosphatases, shedding light on the underlying factors governing HDAC4 translocation

    Histone deacetylase 4 and 5 translocation elicited by microsecond pulsed electric field exposure is mediated by kinase activity

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    Electroporation-based technologies using microsecond pulsed electric field (¬ĶsPEF) exposures are established as laboratory and clinical tools that permeabilize cell membranes. We demonstrate a ¬ĶsPEF bioeffect on nucleocytoplasmic import and export of enzymes that regulate genetic expression, histone deacetylases (HDAC) -4 and -5. Their őľsPEF-induced nucleocytoplasmic transport depends on presence and absence of extracellular calcium ions (Ca2+) for both MCF7 and CHO-K1 cells. Exposure to 1, 10, 30 and 50 consecutive square wave pulses at 1 Hz and of 100 ¬Ķs duration with 1.45 kV/cm magnitude leads to translocation of endogenous HDAC4 and HDAC5. We posit that by eliciting a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, a signaling pathway involving kinases, such as Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), is activated. This cascade causes nuclear export and import of HDAC4 and HDAC5. The potential of ¬ĶsPEF exposures to control nucleocytoplasmic transport unlocks future opportunities in epigenetic modification

    Species delimitation and genetic diversity analysis in Salvia with the use of ISSR molecular markers

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    Thirty-nine plant specimens of six Salvia species were collected from different localities of the Alborz mountain region in Iran and studied for morphological and genetic variability and species relationship. Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) molecular markers showed a high degree of within-species and interspecific genetic variability in Salvia. Analysis of molecular variance and Hickory tests showed significant molecular difference among the studied populations. A principal coordinate analysis plot of morphological characters grouped the species into two distinct groups, supporting their taxonomic treatment. This was partly supported by ISSR networking. The Mantel test did not show a correlation between genetic distance and the geographical distance of the studied populations. STRUCTURE and reticulation analyses revealed some degree of gene flow among the species. The present study showed that ISSR molecular markers could be used in Salvia species delimitation along with morphological study

    Heart failure: a prevalence-based and model-based cost analysis

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    IntroductionHeart failure (HF) imposes a heavy economic burden on patients, their families, and society as a whole. Therefore, it is crucial to quantify the impact and dimensions of the disease in order to prioritize and allocate resources effectively.MethodsThis study utilized a prevalence-based, bottom-up, and incidence-based Markov model to assess the cost of illness. A total of 502 HF patients (classes I‚ÄďIV) were recruited from Madani Hospital in Tabriz between May and October 2022. Patients were followed up every two months for a minimum of two and a maximum of six months using a person-month measurement approach. The perspective of the study was societal, and both direct and indirect costs were estimated. Indirect costs were calculated using the Human Capital (HC) method. A two-part regression model, consisting of the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and Probit model, was used to analyze the relationship between HF costs and clinical and demographic variables.ResultsThe total cost per patient in one year was 261,409,854.9 Tomans (21,967.21 PPP). Of this amount, 207,147,805.8 Tomans (17,407.38 PPP) (79%) were indirect costs, while 54,262,049.09 Tomans (4,559.84 PPP) (21%) were direct costs. The mean lifetime cost was 2,173,961,178 Tomans. Premature death accounted for the highest share of lifetime costs (48%), while class III HF had the lowest share (2%). Gender, having basic insurance, and disease class significantly influenced the costs of HF, while comorbidity and age did not have a significant impact. The predicted amount closely matched the observed amount, indicating good predictive power.ConclusionThis study revealed that HF places a significant economic burden on patients in terms of both direct and indirect costs. The substantial contribution of indirect costs, which reflect the impact of the disease on other sectors of the economy, highlights the importance of unpaid work. Given the significant variation in HF costs among assessed variables, social and financial support systems should consider these variations to provide efficient and fair support to HF patients

    Tumor Matrix Stiffness Provides Fertile Soil for Cancer Stem Cells

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    Matrix stiffness is a mechanical characteristic of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that increases from the tumor core to the tumor periphery in a gradient pattern in a variety of solid tumors and can promote proliferation, invasion, metastasis, drug resistance, and recurrence. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a rare subpopulation of tumor cells with self-renewal, asymmetric cell division, and differentiation capabilities. CSCs are thought to be responsible for metastasis, tumor recurrence, chemotherapy resistance, and consequently poor clinical outcomes. Evidence suggests that matrix stiffness can activate receptors and mechanosensor/mechanoregulator proteins such as integrin, FAK, and YAP, modulating the characteristics of tumor cells as well as CSCs through different molecular signaling pathways. A deeper understanding of the effect of matrix stiffness on CSCs characteristics could lead to development of innovative cancer therapies. In this review, we discuss how the stiffness of the ECM is sensed by the cells and how the cells respond to this environmental change as well as the effect of matrix stiffness on CSCs characteristics and also the key malignant processes such as proliferation and EMT. Then, we specifically focus on how increased matrix stiffness affects CSCs in breast, lung, liver, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers. We also discuss how the molecules responsible for increased matrix stiffness and the signaling pathways activated by the enhanced stiffness can be manipulated as a therapeutic strategy for cancer

    The global, regional, and national burden of adult lip, oral, and pharyngeal cancer in 204 countries and territories:A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Importance Lip, oral, and pharyngeal cancers are important contributors to cancer burden worldwide, and a comprehensive evaluation of their burden globally, regionally, and nationally is crucial for effective policy planning.Objective To analyze the total and risk-attributable burden of lip and oral cavity cancer (LOC) and other pharyngeal cancer (OPC) for 204 countries and territories and by Socio-demographic Index (SDI) using 2019 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study estimates.Evidence Review The incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to LOC and OPC from 1990 to 2019 were estimated using GBD 2019 methods. The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate the proportion of deaths and DALYs for LOC and OPC attributable to smoking, tobacco, and alcohol consumption in 2019.Findings In 2019, 370‚ÄĮ000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 338‚ÄĮ000-401‚ÄĮ000) cases and 199‚ÄĮ000 (95% UI, 181‚ÄĮ000-217‚ÄĮ000) deaths for LOC and 167‚ÄĮ000 (95% UI, 153‚ÄĮ000-180‚ÄĮ000) cases and 114‚ÄĮ000 (95% UI, 103‚ÄĮ000-126‚ÄĮ000) deaths for OPC were estimated to occur globally, contributing 5.5 million (95% UI, 5.0-6.0 million) and 3.2 million (95% UI, 2.9-3.6 million) DALYs, respectively. From 1990 to 2019, low-middle and low SDI regions consistently showed the highest age-standardized mortality rates due to LOC and OPC, while the high SDI strata exhibited age-standardized incidence rates decreasing for LOC and increasing for OPC. Globally in 2019, smoking had the greatest contribution to risk-attributable OPC deaths for both sexes (55.8% [95% UI, 49.2%-62.0%] of all OPC deaths in male individuals and 17.4% [95% UI, 13.8%-21.2%] of all OPC deaths in female individuals). Smoking and alcohol both contributed to substantial LOC deaths globally among male individuals (42.3% [95% UI, 35.2%-48.6%] and 40.2% [95% UI, 33.3%-46.8%] of all risk-attributable cancer deaths, respectively), while chewing tobacco contributed to the greatest attributable LOC deaths among female individuals (27.6% [95% UI, 21.5%-33.8%]), driven by high risk-attributable burden in South and Southeast Asia.Conclusions and Relevance In this systematic analysis, disparities in LOC and OPC burden existed across the SDI spectrum, and a considerable percentage of burden was attributable to tobacco and alcohol use. These estimates can contribute to an understanding of the distribution and disparities in LOC and OPC burden globally and support cancer control planning efforts

    The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. Findings Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4.45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4.01-4.94) deaths and 105 million (95.0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44.4% (41.3-48.4) of all cancer deaths and 42.0% (39.1-45.6) of all DALYs. There were 2.88 million (2.60-3.18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50.6% [47.8-54.1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1.58 million (1.36-1.84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36.3% [32.5-41.3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20.4% (12.6-28.4) and DALYs by 16.8% (8.8-25.0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34.7% [27.9-42.8] and 33.3% [25.8-42.0]). Interpretation The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.Peer reviewe

    Mitochondrial physiology

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    As the knowledge base and importance of mitochondrial physiology to evolution, health and disease expands, the necessity for harmonizing the terminology concerning mitochondrial respiratory states and rates has become increasingly apparent. The chemiosmotic theory establishes the mechanism of energy transformation and coupling in oxidative phosphorylation. The unifying concept of the protonmotive force provides the framework for developing a consistent theoretical foundation of mitochondrial physiology and bioenergetics. We follow the latest SI guidelines and those of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) on terminology in physical chemistry, extended by considerations of open systems and thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The concept-driven constructive terminology incorporates the meaning of each quantity and aligns concepts and symbols with the nomenclature of classical bioenergetics. We endeavour to provide a balanced view of mitochondrial respiratory control and a critical discussion on reporting data of mitochondrial respiration in terms of metabolic flows and fluxes. Uniform standards for evaluation of respiratory states and rates will ultimately contribute to reproducibility between laboratories and thus support the development of data repositories of mitochondrial respiratory function in species, tissues, and cells. Clarity of concept and consistency of nomenclature facilitate effective transdisciplinary communication, education, and ultimately further discovery
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