128 research outputs found

    The Life Cycle of Dust

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    Dust offers a unique probe of the interstellar medium (ISM) across multiple size, density, and temperature scales. Dust is detected in outflows of evolved stars, star-forming molecular clouds, planet-forming disks, and even in galaxies at the dawn of the Universe. These grains also have a profound effect on various astrophysical phenomena from thermal balance and extinction in galaxies to the building blocks for planets, and changes in dust grain properties will affect all of these phenomena. A full understanding of dust in all of its forms and stages requires a multi-disciplinary investigation of the dust life cycle. Such an investigation can be achieved with a statistical study of dust properties across stellar evolution, star and planet formation, and redshift. Current and future instrumentation will enable this investigation through fast and sensitive observations in dust continuum, polarization, and spectroscopy from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths

    The Kinematic and Chemical Properties of a Potential Core-Forming Clump: Perseus B1-E

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    We present 13CO and C18O (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) maps towards the core-forming Perseus B1-E clump using observations from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) of the Arizona Radio Observatory, and IRAM 30 m telescope. We find that the 13CO and C18O line emission both have very complex velocity structures, indicative of multiple velocity components within the ambient gas. The (1-0) transitions reveal a radial velocity gradient across B1-E of 1 km/s/pc that increases from north-west to south-east, whereas the majority of the Perseus cloud has a radial velocity gradient increasing from south-west to north-east. In contrast, we see no evidence of a velocity gradient associated with the denser Herschel-identified substructures in B1-E. Additionally, the denser substructures have much lower systemic motions than the ambient clump material, which indicates that they are likely decoupled from the large-scale gas. Nevertheless, these substructures themselves have broad line widths (0.4 km/s) similar to that of the C18O gas in the clump, which suggests they inherited their kinematic properties from the larger-scale, moderately dense gas. Finally, we find evidence of C18O depletion only toward one substructure, B1-E2, which is also the only object with narrow (transonic) line widths. We suggest that as prestellar cores form, their chemical and kinematic properties are linked in evolution, such that these objects must first dissipate their turbulence before they deplete in CO.Comment: Accepted by ApJ, 34 pages, 12 figure

    Acceleration and Substructure Constraints in a Quasar Outflow

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    We present observations of probable line-of-sight acceleration of a broad absorption trough of C IV in the quasar SDSS J024221.87+004912.6. We also discuss how the velocity overlap of two other outflowing systems in the same object constrains the properties of the outflows. The Si IV doublet in each system has one unblended transition and one transition which overlaps with absorption from the other system. The residual flux in the overlapping trough is well fit by the product of the residual fluxes in the unblended troughs. For these optically thick systems to yield such a result, at least one of them must consist of individual subunits rather than being a single structure with velocity-dependent coverage of the source. If these subunits are identical, opaque, spherical clouds, we estimate the cloud radius to be r = 3.9 10^15 cm. If they are identical, opaque, linear filaments, we estimate their width to be w = 6.5 10^14 cm. These subunits are observed to cover the Mg II broad emission line region of the quasar, at which distance from the black hole the above filament width is equal to the predicted scale height of the outer atmosphere of a thin accretion disk. Insofar as that scale height is a natural size scale for structures originating in an accretion disk, these observations are evidence that the accretion disk can be a source of quasar absorption systems. Based on data from ESO program 075.B-0190(A).Comment: 14 emulateapj pages, 7 figures, ApJ in pres

    An Observed Lack of Substructure in Starless Cores II: Super-Jeans Cores

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    We present SMA and CARMA continuum and spectral line observations of five dense cores located in the Perseus and Ophiuchus molecular clouds whose masses exceed their thermal Jeans masses. Three of these cores have previously been identified as being starless and two have been classified as being possibly protostellar. We find that one core is certainly protostellar. The other four cores, however, are starless and undetected in both C18O (2-1) and 1.3mm continuum emission. These four starless cores have flat density profiles out to at least 0.006 pc, which is typical for starless cores in general. Density profiles predicted by some collapse models, especially in the early stages of infall, are consistent with our observations. Archival data reveal that these starless cores have significant non-thermal support against collapse, although they may still be unstable.Comment: 18 pages including 5 pages of figures, accepted to Ap
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