72 research outputs found

    Corrigendum: MEF2 transcription factors are key regulators of sprouting angiogenesis

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    The above-mentioned article contained three errors in the Supplemental Figures. In Supplemental Figure 3D, both bar graphs are missing labels for the X-axes due to an oversight during figure preparation

    2020 APHRS/HRS Expert Consensus Statement on the Investigation of Decedents with Sudden Unexplained Death and Patients with Sudden Cardiac Arrest, and of Their Families.

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    This international multidisciplinary document intends to provide clinicians with evidence-based practical patient-centered recommendations for evaluating patients and decedents with (aborted) sudden cardiac arrest and their families. The document includes a framework for the investigation of the family allowing steps to be taken, should an inherited condition be found, to minimize further events in affected relatives. Integral to the process is counseling of the patients and families, not only because of the emotionally charged subject, but because finding (or not finding) the cause of the arrest may influence management of family members. The formation of multidisciplinary teams is essential to provide a complete service to the patients and their families, and the varied expertise of the writing committee was formulated to reflect this need. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by Class of Recommendation and Level of Evidence. The recommendations were opened for public comment and reviewed by the relevant scientific and clinical document committees of the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS) and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS); the document underwent external review and endorsement by the partner and collaborating societies. While the recommendations are for optimal care, it is recognized that not all resources will be available to all clinicians. Nevertheless, this document articulates the evaluation that the clinician should aspire to provide for patients with sudden cardiac arrest, decedents with sudden unexplained death, and their families

    A Primary Prevention Clinical Risk Score Model for Patients With Brugada Syndrome (BRUGADA-RISK)

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    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to develop a risk score model for patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS). BACKGROUND: Risk stratification in BrS is a significant challenge due to the low event rates and conflicting evidence. METHODS: A multicenter international cohort of patients with BrS and no previous cardiac arrest was used to evaluate the role of 16 proposed clinical or electrocardiogram (ECG) markers in predicting ventricular arrhythmias (VAs)/sudden cardiac death (SCD) during follow-up. Predictive markers were incorporated into a risk score model, and this model was validated by using out-of-sample cross-validation. RESULTS: A total of 1,110 patients with BrS from 16 centers in 8 countries were included (mean age 51.8 ± 13.6 years; 71.8% male). Median follow-up was 5.33 years; 114 patients had VA/SCD (10.3%) with an annual event rate of 1.5%. Of the 16 proposed risk factors, probable arrhythmia-related syncope (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.71; p < 0.001), spontaneous type 1 ECG (HR: 3.80; p < 0.001), early repolarization (HR: 3.42; p < 0.001), and a type 1 Brugada ECG pattern in peripheral leads (HR: 2.33; p < 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of VA/SCD. A risk score model incorporating these factors revealed a sensitivity of 71.2% (95% confidence interval: 61.5% to 84.6%) and a specificity of 80.2% (95% confidence interval: 75.7% to 82.3%) in predicting VA/SCD at 5 years. Calibration plots showed a mean prediction error of 1.2%. The model was effectively validated by using out-of-sample cross-validation according to country. CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter study identified 4 risk factors for VA/SCD in a primary prevention BrS population. A risk score model was generated to quantify risk of VA/SCD in BrS and inform implantable cardioverter-defibrillator prescription

    MEF2 transcription factors are key regulators of sprouting angiogenesis

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    Angiogenesis, the fundamental process by which new blood vessels form from existing ones, depends on precise spatial and temporal gene expression within specific compartments of the endothelium. However, the molecular links between proangiogenic signals and downstream gene expression remain unclear. During sprouting angiogenesis, the specification of endothelial cells into the tip cells that lead new blood vessel sprouts is coordinated by vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)/Notch signaling and requires high levels of Notch ligand DLL4. Here, we identify MEF2 transcription factors as crucial regulators of sprouting angiogenesis directly downstream from VEGFA. Through the characterization of a Dll4 enhancer directing expression to endothelial cells at the angiogenic front, we found that MEF2 factors directly transcriptionally activate the expression of Dll4 and many other key genes up-regulated during sprouting angiogenesis in both physiological and tumor vascularization. Unlike ETS-mediated regulation, MEF2-binding motifs are not ubiquitous to all endothelial gene enhancers and promoters but are instead overrepresented around genes associated with sprouting angiogenesis. MEF2 target gene activation is directly linked to VEGFA-induced release of repressive histone deacetylases and concurrent recruitment of the histone acetyltransferase EP300 to MEF2 target gene regulatory elements, thus establishing MEF2 factors as the transcriptional effectors of VEGFA signaling during angiogenesis

    Decoding the regulatory network of early blood development from single-cell gene expression measurements.

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    Reconstruction of the molecular pathways controlling organ development has been hampered by a lack of methods to resolve embryonic progenitor cells. Here we describe a strategy to address this problem that combines gene expression profiling of large numbers of single cells with data analysis based on diffusion maps for dimensionality reduction and network synthesis from state transition graphs. Applying the approach to hematopoietic development in the mouse embryo, we map the progression of mesoderm toward blood using single-cell gene expression analysis of 3,934 cells with blood-forming potential captured at four time points between E7.0 and E8.5. Transitions between individual cellular states are then used as input to develop a single-cell network synthesis toolkit to generate a computationally executable transcriptional regulatory network model of blood development. Several model predictions concerning the roles of Sox and Hox factors are validated experimentally. Our results demonstrate that single-cell analysis of a developing organ coupled with computational approaches can reveal the transcriptional programs that underpin organogenesis.We thank J. Downing (St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA) for the Runx1-ires-GFP mouse. Research in the authors' laboratory is supported by the Medical Research Council, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Leukaemia and Lymphoma Research, the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, Microsoft Research and core support grants by the Wellcome Trust to the Cambridge Institute for Medical Research and Wellcome Trust - MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute. V.M. is supported by a Medical Research Council Studentship and Centenary Award and S.W. by a Microsoft Research PhD Scholarship.This is the accepted manuscript for a paper published in Nature Biotechnology 33, 269–276 (2015) doi:10.1038/nbt.315

    Epigenetic Transcriptional Regulation of the Growth Arrest-Specific gene 1 (Gas1) in Hepatic Cell Proliferation at Mononucleosomal Resolution

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    BACKGROUND: Gas1 (growth arrest-specific 1) gene is known to inhibit cell proliferation in a variety of models, but its possible implication in regulating quiescence in adult tissues has not been examined to date. The knowledge of how Gas1 is regulated in quiescence may contribute to understand the deregulation occurring in neoplastic diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gas1 expression has been studied in quiescent murine liver and during the naturally synchronized cell proliferation after partial hepatectomy. Chromatin immunoprecipitation at nucleosomal resolution (Nuc-ChIP) has been used to carry out the study preserving the in vivo conditions. Transcription has been assessed at real time by quantifying the presence of RNA polymerase II in coding regions (RNApol-ChIP). It has been found that Gas1 is expressed not only in quiescent liver but also at the cell cycle G(1)/S transition. The latter expression peak had not been previously reported. Two nucleosomes, flanking a nucleosome-free region, are positioned close to the transcription start site. Both nucleosomes slide in going from the active to the inactive state and vice versa. Nuc-ChIP analysis of the acquisition of histone epigenetic marks show distinctive features in both active states: H3K9ac and H3K4me2 are characteristic of transcription in G(0) and H4R3me2 in G(1)/S transition. Sequential-ChIP analysis revealed that the "repressing" mark H3K9me2 colocalize with several "activating" marks at nucleosome N-1 when Gas1 is actively transcribed suggesting a greater plasticity of epigenetic marks than proposed until now. The recruitment of chromatin-remodeling or modifying complexes also displayed distinct characteristics in quiescence and the G(1)/S transition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The finding that Gas1 is transcribed at the G(1)/S transition suggests that the gene may exert a novel function during cell proliferation. Transcription of this gene is modulated by specific "activating" and "repressing" epigenetic marks, and by chromatin remodeling and histone modifying complexes recruitment, at specific nucleosomes in Gas1 promoter

    Pharmacological targeting of the transcription factor SOX18 delays breast cancer in mice.

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    Pharmacological targeting of transcription factors holds great promise for the development of new therapeutics, but strategies based on blockade of DNA binding, nuclear shuttling, or individual protein partner recruitment have yielded limited success to date. Transcription factors typically engage in complex interaction networks, likely masking the effects of specifically inhibiting single protein-protein interactions. Here, we used a combination of genomic, proteomic and biophysical methods to discover a suite of protein-protein interactions involving the SOX18 transcription factor, a known regulator of vascular development and disease. We describe a small-molecule that is able to disrupt a discrete subset of SOX18-dependent interactions. This compound selectively suppressed SOX18 transcriptional outputs in vitro and interfered with vascular development in zebrafish larvae. In a mouse pre-clinical model of breast cancer, treatment with this inhibitor significantly improved survival by reducing tumour vascular density and metastatic spread. Our studies validate an interactome-based molecular strategy to interfere with transcription factor activity, for the development of novel disease therapeutics
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