2 research outputs found

    Co-catalytic Absorption Layers for Controlled Laser-Induced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

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    The concept of co-catalytic layer structures for controlled laser-induced chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes is established, in which a thin Ta support layer chemically aids the initial Fe catalyst reduction. This enables a significant reduction in laser power, preventing detrimental positive optical feedback and allowing improved growth control. Systematic study of experimental parameters combined with simple thermostatic modeling establishes general guidelines for the effective design of such catalyst/absorption layer combinations. Local growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests directly on flexible polyimide substrates is demonstrated, opening up new routes for nanodevice design and fabrication

    Interdependency of Subsurface Carbon Distribution and Graphene–Catalyst Interaction

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    The dynamics of the graphene–catalyst interaction during chemical vapor deposition are investigated using in situ, time- and depth-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and complementary grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations coupled to a tight-binding model. We thereby reveal the interdependency of the distribution of carbon close to the catalyst surface and the strength of the graphene–catalyst interaction. The strong interaction of epitaxial graphene with Ni(111) causes a depletion of dissolved carbon close to the catalyst surface, which prevents additional layer formation leading to a self-limiting graphene growth behavior for low exposure pressures (10<sup>–6</sup>–10<sup>–3</sup> mbar). A further hydrocarbon pressure increase (to ∼10<sup>–1</sup> mbar) leads to weakening of the graphene–Ni(111) interaction accompanied by additional graphene layer formation, mediated by an increased concentration of near-surface dissolved carbon. We show that growth of more weakly adhered, rotated graphene on Ni(111) is linked to an initially higher level of near-surface carbon compared to the case of epitaxial graphene growth. The key implications of these results for graphene growth control and their relevance to carbon nanotube growth are highlighted in the context of existing literature