81 research outputs found

    Cavity-Catalyzed Hydrogen Transfer Dynamics in an Entangled Molecular Ensemble under Vibrational Strong Coupling

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    Microcavities have been shown to influence the reactivity of molecular ensembles by strong coupling of molecular vibrations to quantized cavity modes. In quantum mechanical treatments of such scenarios, frequently idealized models with single molecules and scaled, effective molecule-cavity interactions or alternatively ensemble models with simplified model Hamiltonians are used. In this work, we go beyond these models by applying an ensemble variant of the Pauli-Fierz Hamiltonian for vibro-polaritonic chemistry and numerically solve the underlying time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation to study the cavity-induced quantum dynamics in an ensemble of thioacetylacetone (TAA) molecules undergoing hydrogen transfer under vibrational strong coupling (VSC) conditions. Beginning with a single molecule coupled to a single cavity mode, we show that the cavity indeed enforces hydrogen transfer from an enol to an enethiol configuration with transfer rates significantly increasing with light-matter interaction strength. This positive effect of the cavity on reaction rates is different from several other systems studied so far, where a retarding effect of the cavity on rates was found. It is argued that the cavity ``catalyzes'' the reaction by transfer of virtual photons to the molecule. The same concept applies to ensembles with up to N=20N=20 TAA molecules coupled to a single cavity mode, where an additional, significant, ensemble-induced collective isomerization rate enhancement is found. The latter is traced back to complex entanglement dynamics of the ensemble, which we quantify by means of von Neumann-entropies. A non-trivial dependence of the dynamics on ensemble size is found, clearly beyond scaled single-molecule models, which we interpret as transition from a multi-mode Rabi to a system-bath-type regime as NN increases.Comment: Manuscript 9 pages, 5 figures (minor changes in v2). Supplementary Information 7 pages, 5 figures (Section III rewritten in v2 after peer-review

    Characterization of Water Dissociation on α\alpha-Al2_{2}O3_{3}(11ˉ02)(1\bar{1}02): Theory and Experiment

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    The interaction of water with α\alpha-alumina (i.e. α\alpha-Al2_{2}O3_{3} surfaces is important in a variety of applications and a useful model for the interaction of water with environmentally abundant aluminosilicate phases. Despite its significance, studies of water interaction with α\alpha-Al2_{2}O3_{3} surfaces other than the (0001)(0001) are extremely limited. Here we characterize the interaction of water (D2_{2}O) with a well defined α\alpha-Al2_{2}O3_{3}(11ˉ02)(1\bar{1}02) surface in UHV both experimentally, using temperature programmed desorption and surface-specific vibrational spectroscopy, and theoretically, using periodic-slab density functional theory calculations. This combined approach makes it possible to demonstrate that water adsorption occurs only at a single well defined surface site (the so-called 1-4 configuration) and that at this site the barrier between the molecularly and dissociatively adsorbed forms is very low: 0.06 eV. A subset of OD stretch vibrations are parallel to this dissociation coordinate, and thus would be expected to be shifted to low frequencies relative to an uncoupled harmonic oscillator. To quantify this effect we solve the vibrational Schr\"odinger equation along the dissociation coordinate and find fundamental frequencies red-shifted by more than 1,500 cm-1^{\text{-1}}. Within the context of this model, at moderate temperatures, we further find that some fraction of surface deuterons are likely delocalized: dissociatively and molecularly absorbed states are no longer distinguishable.Comment: Paper: 22 pages, 9 figures , ESI: 6 pages, 1 figur

    A six-dimensional potential energy surface for Ru(0001)(2×2):CO

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    We present a new global ground state potential energy surface (PES) for carbon monoxide at a coverage of 1/4, on a rigid Ru(0001) surface [Ru(0001)(2×2):CO]. All six adsorbate degrees of freedom are considered. For constructing the PES, we make use of more than 90 000 points calculated with periodic density functional theory using the RPBE exchange-correlation functional and an empirical van der Waals correction. These points are used for interpolation, utilizing a symmetry-adapted corrugation reducing procedure (CRP). Three different interpolation schemes with increasing accuracy have been realized, giving rise to three flavours of the CRP PES. The CRP PES yields in agreement with the DFT reference and experiments, the atop position of CO to be the most stable adsorption geometry, for the most accurate interpolation with an adsorption energy of 1.69 eV. The CRP PES shows that diffusion parallel to the surface is hindered by a barrier of 430 meV, and that dissociation is facilitated but still activated. As a first “real” application and further test of the new potential, the six-dimensional vibrational Schrödinger equation is solved variationally to arrive at fully coupled, anharmonic frequencies and vibrational wavefunctions for the vibrating, adsorbed CO molecule. Good agreement with experiment is found also here. Being analytical, the new PES opens an efficient way towards multidimensional dynamics

    Control of oxidation and spin state in a single-molecule junction

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    The oxidation and spin state of a metal–organic molecule determine its chemical reactivity and magnetic properties. Here, we demonstrate the reversible control of the oxidation and spin state in a single Fe porphyrin molecule in the force field of the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. Within the regimes of half-integer and integer spin state, we can further track the evolution of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Our experimental results are corroborated by density functional theory and wave function theory. This combined analysis allows us to draw a complete picture of the molecular states over a large range of intramolecular deformations

    Dynamics of Azobenzene Dimer Photoisomerization: Electronic and Steric Effects

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    While azobenzenes readily photoswitch in solution, their photoisomerization in densely packed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be suppressed. Reasons for this can be steric hindrance and/or electronic quenching, e.g., by exciton coupling. We address these possibilities by means of nonadiabatic molecular dynamics with trajectory surface hopping calculations, investigating the trans → cis isomerization of azobenzene after excitation into the ππ∗ absorption band. We consider a free monomer, an isolated dimer and a dimer embedded in a SAM-like environment of additional azobenzene molecules, imitating in this way the gradual transition from an unconstrained over an electronically coupled to an electronically coupled and sterically hindered, molecular switch. Our simulations reveal that in comparison to the single molecule the quantum yield of the trans → cis photoisomerization is similar for the isolated dimer, but greatly reduced in the sterically constrained situation. Other implications of dimerization and steric constraints are also discussed

    Electronic structure changes during the surface-assisted formation of a graphene nanoribbon

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    High conductivity and a tunability of the band gap make quasi-one-dimensional graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) highly interesting materials for the use in field effect transistors. Especially bottom-up fabricated GNRs possess well-defined edges which is important for the electronic structure and accordingly the band gap. In this study we investigate the formation of a sub-nanometer wide armchair GNR generated on a Au(111) surface. The on-surface synthesis is thermally activated and involves an intermediate non-aromatic polymer in which the molecular precursor forms polyanthrylene chains. Employing angle-resolved two-photon photoemission in combination with density functional theory calculations we find that the polymer exhibits two dispersing states which we attribute to the valence and the conduction band, respectively. While the band gap of the non-aromatic polymer obtained in this way is relatively large, namely 5.25 ± 0.06 eV, the gap of the corresponding aromatic GNR is strongly reduced which we attribute to the different degree of electron delocalization in the two systems

    End states, band gap, and dispersion

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    Angle-resolved two-photon photoemission and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy are employed to derive the electronic structure of a subnanometer atomically precise quasi-one-dimensional graphene nanoribbon (GNR) on Au(111). We resolved occupied and unoccupied electronic bands including their dispersion and determined the band gap, which possesses an unexpectedly large value of 5.1 eV. Supported by density functional theory calculations for the idealized infinite polymer and finite size oligomers, an unoccupied nondispersive electronic state with an energetic position in the middle of the band gap of the GNR could be identified. This state resides at both ends of the ribbon (end state) and is only found in the finite sized systems, i.e., the oligomers

    Why Ultrafast Photoinduced CO Desorption Dominates over Oxidation on Ru(0001)

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    CO oxidation on Ru(0001) is a long-standing example of a reaction that, being thermally forbidden in ultrahigh vacuum, can be activated by femtosecond laser pulses. In spite of its relevance, the precise dynamics of the photoinduced oxidation process as well as the reasons behind the dominant role of the competing CO photodesorption remain unclear. Here we use ab initio molecular dynamics with electronic friction that account for the highly excited and nonequilibrated system created by the laser to investigate both reactions. Our simulations successfully reproduce the main experimental findings: the existence of photoinduced oxidation and desorption, the large desorption to oxidation branching ratio, and the changes in the O K-edge X-ray absorption spectra attributed to the initial stage of the oxidation process. Now, we are able to monitor in detail the ultrafast CO desorption and CO oxidation occurring in the highly excited system and to disentangle what causes the unexpected inertness to the otherwise energetically favored oxidation.A.T., J.I.J., and M.A. acknowledge financial support by the Gobierno Vasco-UPV/EHU [Project No. IT1569-22] and by the Spanish MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 [Grant No. PID2019-107396GB-I00]. P.S. acknowledges support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), through project Sa 547-18. C.E. acknowledges the Klaus Tschira Foundation for financial support. This research was conducted in the scope of the Transnational Common Laboratory (LTC) "Quantum-ChemPhys-Theoretical Chemistry and Physics at the Quantum Scale". Computational resources were provided by the DIPC computing center