18 research outputs found

    Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) and Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) in Primary Healthcare Facilities in Jordan in the Context of COVID-19

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    Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) and Infection prevention and control (IPC) are essential for preventing and containing outbreaks of disease. Nowadays, infection prevention is getting more attention due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The assessment of WASH/IPC indicators in the health sector is a major step in the preparation and management of such a pandemic. A facility-wide WASH and IPC assessment is the cornerstone for designing, developing, and implementing specific WASH and IPC activities at healthcare facilities. This type of assessment helps to identify and prioritize surveillance and prevention activities at the facility and provide healthcare policy makers at all levels with the evidence to strengthen WASH services and infection control policies, practices, and resources in health facilities. Moreover, this helps to motivate facilities to intensify efforts where needed to prevent, respond to, and control the spread of COVID-19. An assessment was conducted in primary healthcare facilities in Jordan to identify the strengths and gaps in the WASH and IPC practices, activities, and resources and to identify areas for quality improvement. This report demonstrates the results of a nationwide assessment of 33 healthcare centres. The assessment included eight domains (areas) pertaining to WASH/IPC with more than 150 indicators. The assessment tools were developed and adapted from the Water and Sanitation for Health Facility Improvement Tool (WASH FIT), the Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) Assessment Framework (IPCAF), Guide to Infection Prevention for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care, the Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services (SIAPS) tool, and COVID-19 Technical Guidance by WHO. The assessment revealed some deficiencies in basic WASH/IPC indicators such as lack of clear guidelines that support the management of health centres in planning and leadership, shortfalls in the budget needed to strengthen the infrastructure of WASH/IPC, inconsistent or under-provisioned training and education programmes for the development of staff skills to lead, plan, manage, and improve WASH/IPC at their facilities. Moreover, the report identified the unmet WASH/IPC needs at centres that should be addressed by policy makers and stakeholders as soon as possible for further steps of consideration in policy development. The report ends with specific recommendations to improve WASH/IPC services and practices

    Needle Stick and Sharp Injuries Among Healthcare Workers: A retrospective six-year study

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    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the proportion of needle stick and sharp injuries (NSSIs) among healthcare workers at King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC), Amman, Jordan. Methods: All NSSI reports referred from departments at KHMC to the Preventive Medicine Department between 2013–2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Proportion of NSSIs were calculated and stratified according to age, gender, job title, place and site of injury and the procedure/task during which the injury occurred. Results: There were a total of 393 NSSIs. A significant association was found between the proportion of NSSIs and all tested variables (P <0.001). The reported proportion of NSSIs was highest among nurses (39.7%) followed by cleaners (36.3%), physicians (10.4%), other workers (7.4%) and lab technicians (5.9%) during the study’s six-year period. Hospital wards were the most common locations (46.1%) where injuries took place. Injuries also occurred most frequently during medical waste collection (38.2%). Conclusion: The proportion of NSSIs was highest among nurses and cleaners. Safety policies and training among high-risk groups should be reviewed to reduce the risk of NSSIs. Multicentre studies at a national level should be conducted to examine whether this study’s findings reflect national trends.Keywords: Needlestick Injuries; Safety; Self Report; Nurses; Accident Prevention; Jordan

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice of healthy eating among public school teachers in Kuwait

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    Background: Healthy food is essential for strengthening the body and protecting it from diseases. Conversely, unhealthy food can cause severe diseases in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice among teachers about healthy food and to examine the associated factors. Design and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire distributed to 300 teachers in the Hawalli and Al-Jahra educational areas in Kuwait over approximately six months in 2019. Results: Those who participated in a course had significantly greater knowledge than those who did not (p=0.005). The respondents in Hawalli had a significantly lower mean attitude than Al-Jahrah teachers (7.9 ± 1.5 vs 8.2±1.5, respectively; p=0.03). Conclusions: Limited knowledge combined with a low level of positive attitude suggests an ongoing educational workshop should be established to promote healthy nutrition

    Evaluation of Family Planning Counselling in North Jordan

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    Objectives: Counselling plays a key role in enhancing reproductive services, providing contraception-related information and supporting long-term family planning for women of childbearing age. This study aimed to evaluate family planning counselling sessions in selected governmental and private clinics in northern Jordan. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2016 in Irbid, Jordan. A total of 200 women attending two private clinics affiliated with the Jordanian Association for Family Planning and Protection (JAFPP) and six governmental clinics were invited to participate in the study. Counselling sessions were attended by an independent observer and evaluated with regards to their compliance with the standard Greet, Ask, Tell, Help, Explain, Return (GATHER) framework. Results: A total of 198 women participated in the study (response rate: 99.0%), including 80 women (40.4%) from JAFPP clinics and 118 (59.6%) from governmental clinics. In total, 42.9% of the counselling sessions were deemed adequate, with providers applying 80% or more of the GATHER framework, while 26.8% of the sessions were deemed semi-adequate and 30.3% were considered inadequate. Counselling services provided in the governmental clinics were significantly less adequate than those provided in JAFPP clinics (P <0.001). Conclusion: The quality of counselling services in governmental family planning centres in Jordan needs to be improved to ensure that women receive the highest possible level of care. Healthcare policymakers should therefore focus on developing and supporting effective family planning counselling services in northern Jordan

    Attitudes of Medical and Health Sciences Students towards Abortion in Jordan

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    Background. Jordan laws on permitting abortion are considered moderate. Religion is one of the key determinants of people’s attitudes towards abortion and plays a crucial role in people’s readiness to accept or refute this practice. In this study, we examined the attitudes of medical and health sciences students towards abortion. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire survey was distributed to students at Jordan University of Science and Technology. Attitudes towards abortion were tested using 16 items that were included in the survey. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used in the analysis. Results. A total of 1324 students in the medicine and dentistry colleges participated in the study. Two-thirds of the participants were women. Most participants were 20–25 years old, and they grew up in a family of 6–8 members. The overall attitude towards abortion was negative, except if the pregnancy was a threat to the mother’s life (91.5%) or if the conception occurred from rape (54.2%). Otherwise, the students indicated that every conceived child has the right to be born (76.8%) and that abortion is considered murder (53.1%). Furthermore, the students who were more likely to support abortion were those attending the medical college, living in a city, and/or raised in smaller families (p=0.04). Conclusions. Compared with other students, medical students were more supportive of abortion. This implied the necessity to include training on safe abortion in the medical curriculum and increase public awareness of the importance of safe abortion

    Dysregulation of the RANKL/RANK/OPG axis in thalassemia intermedia patients

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    Abstract Objective Thalassemia intermedia (TI) describes a disease ranging in severity between β thalassemia major (TM) and β thalassemia trait. Osteoporosis is observed in TI and TM. The exact reason of osteoporosis in TI could be hypogonadism and/or an increase in erythropoietin (EPO) levels. The carboxy-terminal collagen cross links (CTX), a marker of bone resorption, and the N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (P1NP), a marker of bone formation are serum markers of osteoporosis. The receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) axis plays an important role in metabolic bone diseases. Herein, we tested the relationship between the RANKL/RANK/OPG axis and the bone-turnover markers CTX and P1NP in TI. Results We recruited 44 TI patients and 33 non-thalassemic controls and measured the serum levels of hemoglobin, sex steroid hormones, CTX, P1NP, RANKL and OPG. We then used a general linear model to test the association of the above variables with CTX and P1NP as outcome variables. We showed that EPO levels were the strongest predictor of CTX change (P < 0.000), followed by RANKL (P = 0.017). On the other hand, RANKL was the strongest predictor of P1NP change (P < 0.000), followed by OPG (P = 0.009) and EPO (P = 0.024)

    Voice-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

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    Objective. To investigate the voice-related quality of life in a group of patients with multiple sclerosis. Participants. A total of 87 subjects (59 MS subjects and 28 controls) participated in this study. Main Outcome Measures. Variables included presence or absence of phonatory symptoms, duration of the disease, the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), the severity of fatigue, and depression. All patients were asked to fill the Voice Handicap Index. Results. The average age was 35.47 years + 10.92 with 39% being males. The average duration of the disease was 77.93 months. The EDSS score was 1.94 + 1.84, the FSS score was 4.07 + 2.09, and the HRSD was 7.28 + 7.70. Only 7 subjects out of the 59 had vocal symptoms compared to 3 in the control group. There was no significant difference in the VHI total score between cases (5.9 + 15.5) and controls (5.4 + 8.2). There was a positive correlation between VHI total score, FSS score, and HRSD (P values of 0.011 and <0.01. Conclusion. The voice-related quality of life in MS is within normal with no disability

    Correlation of genetic alterations by whole-exome sequencing with clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients from the Lebanese population.

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    IntroductionGlioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor associated with high degree of resistance to treatment. Given its heterogeneity, it is important to understand the molecular landscape of this tumor for the development of more effective therapies. Because of the different genetic profiles of patients with GBM, we sought to identify genetic variants in Lebanese patients with GBM (LEB-GBM) and compare our findings to those in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).MethodsWe performed whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify somatic variants in a cohort of 60 patient-derived GBM samples. We focused our analysis on 50 commonly mutated GBM candidate genes and compared mutation signatures between our population and publicly available GBM data from TCGA. We also cross-tabulated biological covariates to assess for associations with overall survival, time to recurrence and follow-up duration.ResultsWe included 60 patient-derived GBM samples from 37 males and 23 females, with age ranging from 3 to 80 years (mean and median age at diagnosis were 51 and 56, respectively). Recurrent tumor formation was present in 94.8% of patients (n = 55/58). After filtering, we identified 360 somatic variants from 60 GBM patient samples. After filtering, we identified 360 somatic variants from 60 GBM patient samples. Most frequently mutated genes in our samples included ATRX, PCDHX11, PTEN, TP53, NF1, EGFR, PIK3CA, and SCN9A. Mutations in NLRP5 were associated with decreased overall survival among the Lebanese GBM cohort (p = 0.002). Mutations in NLRP5 were associated with decreased overall survival among the Lebanese GBM cohort (p = 0.002). EGFR and NF1 mutations were associated with the frontal lobe and temporal lobe in our LEB-GBM cohort, respectively.ConclusionsOur WES analysis confirmed the similarity in mutation signature of the LEB-GBM population with TCGA cohorts. It showed that 1 out of the 50 commonly GBM candidate gene mutations is associated with decreased overall survival among the Lebanese cohort. This study also highlights the need for studies with larger sample sizes to inform clinicians for better prognostication and management of Lebanese patients with GBM

    Assessment of patient safety culture in two emergency departments in Australia: a cross sectional study

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    Purpose: Patient safety culture is a vital element to create patient safety in healthcare organisations. Emergency department (ED) professionals operate in unstable conditions that may pose risk to patient safety on day-to-day basis. The aim of this study was to assess the status of patient safety culture and to quantify the dimensions of safety culture in the ED setting. Design/methodology/approach: This was a descriptive cross sectional study that used a validated questionnaire distributed to the staff working in the nominated EDs. Perceptions on various dimensions of safety culture were reported and the frequency of positive responses for each dimension was calculated. Findings: “Teamwork” is the only dimension that rated positive by over 70% of participants. Other dimensions rated below 50%, except for “Organisational learning–continuous improvement” which rated 51.2%. Areas that rated the lowest were “Handover and transitions”, “Staffing”, “Non-punitive response to error” and “Frequency of event reporting” with average positive response rate of 15.4%, 26%, 26.8% and 27.6%, respectively. Originality/value: This study displayed a concerning perceptions held by participants about the deficiency of patient safety culture in their EDs. Moreover, it provided a baseline finding giving a clearer vision of the areas of patient safety culture that need improvement.</p
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