25 research outputs found

    Generation of Large-Bandwidth X-Ray Free-Electron-Laser Pulses

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    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are modern research tools in disciplines such as biology, material science, chemistry, and physics. Besides the standard operation that aims at minimizing the bandwidth of the produced XFEL radiation, there is a strong scientific demand to produce large-bandwidth XFEL pulses for several applications such as nanocrystallography, stimulated Raman spectroscopy, and multiwavelength anomalous diffraction. We present a self-consistent method that maximizes the XFEL pulse bandwidth by systematically maximizing the energy chirp of the electron beam at the undulator entrance. This is achieved by optimizing the compression scheme and the electron distribution at the source in an iterative back-and-forward tracking. Start-to-end numerical simulations show that a relative bandwidth of 3.25% full-width can be achieved for the hard x-ray pulses in the SwissFEL case

    Review of LEIR operation in 2018

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    During run 2 (2015-2018) the LEIR machine experienced several important improvements in terms of extracted intensity, driven by the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project requirements. In 2018 the machine not only gave another step forward in extracted intensity, but also demonstrated that it could deliver the LIU target intensity in a reproducible and reliable way. The main steps that allowed the high performance reach of the NOMINAL beam and improvements to the machine stability are detailed in this paper. This work is also intended to be a reference for the restart after the Long Shutdown 2

    Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics in Evaluation of LIXisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome, a long-term cardiovascular end point trial of lixisenatide versus placebo

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    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, patients with T2DM and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have a particularly high risk of CV events. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, lixisenatide, improves glycemia, but its effects on CV events have not been thoroughly evaluated. METHODS: ELIXA (www.clinicaltrials.gov no. NCT01147250) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study of lixisenatide in patients with T2DM and a recent ACS event. The primary aim is to evaluate the effects of lixisenatide on CV morbidity and mortality in a population at high CV risk. The primary efficacy end point is a composite of time to CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. Data are systematically collected for safety outcomes, including hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, and malignancy. RESULTS: Enrollment began in July 2010 and ended in August 2013; 6,068 patients from 49 countries were randomized. Of these, 69% are men and 75% are white; at baseline, the mean ± SD age was 60.3 ± 9.7 years, body mass index was 30.2 ± 5.7 kg/m(2), and duration of T2DM was 9.3 ± 8.2 years. The qualifying ACS was a myocardial infarction in 83% and unstable angina in 17%. The study will continue until the positive adjudication of the protocol-specified number of primary CV events. CONCLUSION: ELIXA will be the first trial to report the safety and efficacy of a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist in people with T2DM and high CV event risk

    Highly-parallelized simulation of a pixelated LArTPC on a GPU

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    The rapid development of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is allowing the implementation of highly-parallelized Monte Carlo simulation chains for particle physics experiments. This technique is particularly suitable for the simulation of a pixelated charge readout for time projection chambers, given the large number of channels that this technology employs. Here we present the first implementation of a full microphysical simulator of a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) equipped with light readout and pixelated charge readout, developed for the DUNE Near Detector. The software is implemented with an end-to-end set of GPU-optimized algorithms. The algorithms have been written in Python and translated into CUDA kernels using Numba, a just-in-time compiler for a subset of Python and NumPy instructions. The GPU implementation achieves a speed up of four orders of magnitude compared with the equivalent CPU version. The simulation of the current induced on 10310^3 pixels takes around 1 ms on the GPU, compared with approximately 10 s on the CPU. The results of the simulation are compared against data from a pixel-readout LArTPC prototype

    Highly-parallelized simulation of a pixelated LArTPC on a GPU

    No full text
    The rapid development of general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) is allowing the implementation of highly-parallelized Monte Carlo simulation chains for particle physics experiments. This technique is particularly suitable for the simulation of a pixelated charge readout for time projection chambers, given the large number of channels that this technology employs. Here we present the first implementation of a full microphysical simulator of a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) equipped with light readout and pixelated charge readout, developed for the DUNE Near Detector. The software is implemented with an end-to-end set of GPU-optimized algorithms. The algorithms have been written in Python and translated into CUDA kernels using Numba, a just-in-time compiler for a subset of Python and NumPy instructions. The GPU implementation achieves a speed up of four orders of magnitude compared with the equivalent CPU version. The simulation of the current induced on 10310^3 pixels takes around 1 ms on the GPU, compared with approximately 10 s on the CPU. The results of the simulation are compared against data from a pixel-readout LArTPC prototype

    The DUNE Far Detector Vertical Drift Technology, Technical Design Report