1,175 research outputs found

    Diagnostic criteria for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a Fleischner Society White Paper.

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    This Review provides an updated approach to the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), based on a systematic search of the medical literature and the expert opinion of members of the Fleischner Society. A checklist is provided for the clinical evaluation of patients with suspected usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The role of CT is expanded to permit diagnosis of IPF without surgical lung biopsy in select cases when CT shows a probable UIP pattern. Additional investigations, including surgical lung biopsy, should be considered in patients with either clinical or CT findings that are indeterminate for IPF. A multidisciplinary approach is particularly important when deciding to perform additional diagnostic assessments, integrating biopsy results with clinical and CT features, and establishing a working diagnosis of IPF if lung tissue is not available. A working diagnosis of IPF should be reviewed at regular intervals since the diagnosis might change. Criteria are presented to establish confident and working diagnoses of IPF

    Study of the decays B->D_s1(2536)+ anti-D(*)

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    We report a study of the decays B -> D_s1(2536)+ anti-D(*), where anti-D(*) is anti-D0, D- or D*-, using a sample of 657 x 10^6 B anti-B pairs collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. The branching fractions of the decays B+ -> D_s1(2536)+ anti-D0, B0 -> D_s1(2536)+ D- and B0 -> D_s1(2536)+ D*- multiplied by that of D_s1(2536)+ -> (D*0K+ + D*+K0) are found to be (3.97+-0.85+-0.56) x 10^-4, (2.75+-0.62+-0.36) x 10^-4 and (5.01+-1.21+-0.70) x 10^-4, respectively.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figues, submitted to PRD (RC

    Evidence for B- -> tau- nu_bar with a Semileptonic Tagging Method

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    We present a measurement of the decay B- -> tau- nu_bar using a data sample containing 657 million BB_bar pairs collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. A sample of BB_bar pairs are tagged by reconstructing one B meson decaying semileptonically. We detect the B- -> tau- nu_bar candidate in the recoil. We obtain a signal with a significance of 3.6 standard deviations including systematic uncertainties, and measure the branching fraction to be Br(B- -> tau- nu_bar) = [1.54+0.38-0.37(stat)+0.29-0.31(syst)]*10^-4. This result confirms the evidence for B- -> tau- nu_bar obtained in a previous Belle measurement that used a hadronic B tagging method.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures, corrected references, to appear in PRD-R

    Holographic Vitrification

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    We establish the existence of stable and metastable stationary black hole bound states at finite temperature and chemical potentials in global and planar four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We determine a number of features of their holographic duals and argue they represent structural glasses. We map out their thermodynamic landscape in the probe approximation, and show their relaxation dynamics exhibits logarithmic aging, with aging rates determined by the distribution of barriers.Comment: 100 pages, 25 figure

    Tissue Microenvironments Define and Get Reinforced by Macrophage Phenotypes in Homeostasis or during Inflammation, Repair and Fibrosis

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    Current macrophage phenotype classifications are based on distinct in vitro culture conditions that do not adequately mirror complex tissue environments. In vivo monocyte progenitors populate all tissues for immune surveillance which supports the maintenance of homeostasis as well as regaining homeostasis after injury. Here we propose to classify macrophage phenotypes according to prototypical tissue environments, e.g. as they occur during homeostasis as well as during the different phases of (dermal) wound healing. In tissue necrosis and/or infection, damage- and/or pathogen-associated molecular patterns induce proinflammatory macrophages by Toll-like receptors or inflammasomes. Such classically activated macrophages contribute to further tissue inflammation and damage. Apoptotic cells and antiinflammatory cytokines dominate in postinflammatory tissues which induce macrophages to produce more antiinflammatory mediators. Similarly, tumor-associated macrophages also confer immunosuppression in tumor stroma. Insufficient parenchymal healing despite abundant growth factors pushes macrophages to gain a profibrotic phenotype and promote fibrocyte recruitment which both enforce tissue scarring. Ischemic scars are largely devoid of cytokines and growth factors so that fibrolytic macrophages that predominantly secrete proteases digest the excess extracellular matrix. Together, macrophages stabilize their surrounding tissue microenvironments by adapting different phenotypes as feed-forward mechanisms to maintain tissue homeostasis or regain it following injury. Furthermore, macrophage heterogeneity in healthy or injured tissues mirrors spatial and temporal differences in microenvironments during the various stages of tissue injury and repair. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Base

    Flexible Indium-Tin Oxide Crystal on Plastic Substrates Supported by Graphene Monolayer

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    Flexible and crystallized indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films were successfully obtained on plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films with monolayered graphene as a platform. The highly crystalline ITO (c-ITO) was first fabricated on a rigid substrate of graphene on copper foil and it was subsequently transferred onto a PET substrate by a well-established technique. Despite the plasma damage during ITO deposition, the graphene layer effectively acted as a Cu-diffusion barrier. The c-ITO/graphene/ PET electrode with the 60-nm-thick ITO exhibited a reasonable sheet resistance of similar to 45 Omega sq(-1) and a transmittance of similar to 92% at a wavelength of 550 nm. The c-ITO on the monolayered graphene support showed significant enhancement in flexibility compared with the ITO/PET film without graphene because the atomically controlled monolayered graphene acted as a mechanically robust support. The prepared flexible transparent c-ITO/graphene/PET electrode was applied as the anode in a bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell (PSC) to evaluate its performance, which was comparable with that of the commonly used c-ITO/glass electrode. These results represent important progress in the fabrication of flexible transparent electrodes for future optoelectronics applications

    Purinergic Receptor Functionality Is Necessary for Infection of Human Hepatocytes by Hepatitis Delta Virus and Hepatitis B Virus

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    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) are major sources of acute and chronic hepatitis. HDV requires the envelope proteins of HBV for the processes of assembly and infection of new cells. Both viruses are able to infect hepatocytes though previous studies have failed to determine the mechanism of entry into such cells. This study began with evidence that suramin, a symmetrical hexasulfated napthylurea, could block HDV entry into primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and was then extrapolated to incorporate findings of others that suramin is one of many compounds that can block activation of purinergic receptors. Thus other inhibitors, pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonate (PPADS) and brilliant blue G (BBG), both structurally unrelated to suramin, were tested and found to inhibit HDV and HBV infections of PHH. BBG, unlike suramin and PPADS, is known to be more specific for just one purinergic receptor, P2X7. These studies provide the first evidence that purinergic receptor functionality is necessary for virus entry. Furthermore, since P2X7 activation is known to be a major component of inflammatory responses, it is proposed that HDV and HBV attachment to susceptible cells, might also contribute to inflammation in the liver, that is, hepatitis

    Production of phi mesons at mid-rapidity in sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC

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    We present the first results of meson production in the K^+K^- decay channel from Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV as measured at mid-rapidity by the PHENIX detector at RHIC. Precision resonance centroid and width values are extracted as a function of collision centrality. No significant variation from the PDG accepted values is observed. The transverse mass spectra are fitted with a linear exponential function for which the derived inverse slope parameter is seen to be constant as a function of centrality. These data are also fitted by a hydrodynamic model with the result that the freeze-out temperature and the expansion velocity values are consistent with the values previously derived from fitting single hadron inclusive data. As a function of transverse momentum the collisions scaled peripheral.to.central yield ratio RCP for the is comparable to that of pions rather than that of protons. This result lends support to theoretical models which distinguish between baryons and mesons instead of particle mass for explaining the anomalous proton yield.Comment: 326 authors, 24 pages text, 23 figures, 6 tables, RevTeX 4. To be submitted to Physical Review C as a regular article. Plain text data tables for the points plotted in figures for this and previous PHENIX publications are (or will be) publicly available at http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/papers.htm

    Vagal Stimulation Modulates Inflammation through a Ghrelin Mediated Mechanism in Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) releases a cascade of inflammatory cytokines. Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) and ghrelin have known anti-inflammatory effects; furthermore, ghrelin release is stimulated by acetylcholine. We hypothesized VNS decreases post-TBI inflammation through a ghrelin-mediated mechanism. TBI was created in five groups of mice: sham, TBI, TBI/ghrelin, TBI/VNS, and TBI/VNS/ghrelin receptor antagonist (GRa). Serum and tissue ghrelin, and serum TNF-α were measured. Ghrelin increased following VNS 2 h post-TBI compared to sham or TBI. At 6 h, TBI and TBI/VNS/GRa had increased TNF-α compared to sham while TBI/VNS and TBI/ghrelin had TNF-α level comparable to sham. The highest ghrelin was measured in stomach where TBI decreased ghrelin in contrast to an increase by VNS. In conclusion, VNS increased serum ghrelin and decreased TNF-α following TBI. This was abrogated with GRa. Our data suggests that ghrelin plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of VNS following TBI

    Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    The performance of muon reconstruction, identification, and triggering in CMS has been studied using 40 inverse picobarns of data collected in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV at the LHC in 2010. A few benchmark sets of selection criteria covering a wide range of physics analysis needs have been examined. For all considered selections, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify a muon with a transverse momentum pT larger than a few GeV is above 95% over the whole region of pseudorapidity covered by the CMS muon system, abs(eta) < 2.4, while the probability to misidentify a hadron as a muon is well below 1%. The efficiency to trigger on single muons with pT above a few GeV is higher than 90% over the full eta range, and typically substantially better. The overall momentum scale is measured to a precision of 0.2% with muons from Z decays. The transverse momentum resolution varies from 1% to 6% depending on pseudorapidity for muons with pT below 100 GeV and, using cosmic rays, it is shown to be better than 10% in the central region up to pT = 1 TeV. Observed distributions of all quantities are well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation.Comment: Replaced with published version. Added journal reference and DO
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