74 research outputs found

    O trabalho no corte de cana-de-açúcar, riscos e efeitos na saúde: revisão da literatura

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    Describe the main work risks for sugarcane cutters and their effects on workers’ health. METHODS: Critical review of articles, with bibliographic research carried out in the PubMed, SciELO Medline, and Lilacs databases. The following keywords were used: sugarcane workers, sugarcane cutters, sugarcane harvesting, cortadores de cana-de-açúcar, and colheita de canade-açúcar. The inclusion criteria were articles published between January 1997 and June 2017, which evaluated working conditions and health effects on sugarcane cutters. Those that did not deal with the work impact of cutting burned and unburnt sugarcane in the cutter’s health were excluded. The final group of manuscripts was selected by the lead author of this study and reviewed by a co-author. Disagreements were resolved by consensus using the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and, where necessary, the final decision was made by consulting a third co-author. RESULTS: From the 89 articles found, 52 met the selection criteria and were evaluated. Studies have shown that cutters work under conditions of physical and mental overload, thermal overload, exposure to pollutants, and are subject to accidents. The main effects observed were respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, musculoskeletal, heat stress, dehydration, genotoxic, and those due to accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Work on the manual cutting of sugarcane, especially of burned sugarcane, exposes workers to various risks, with different health impacts. Risk reduction for exposure to pollution and thermal and physical overload is required as a measure to preserve the health of the worker.OBJETIVO: Descrever os principais riscos do trabalho de cortadores de cana-de-açúcar e seus efeitos na saúde dos trabalhadores. MÉTODOS: Revisão critica de artigos, com pesquisa bibliográfica realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, SciELO Medline, e Lilacs. Foram empregadas as palavras-chave: sugarcane workers, sugarcane cutters, sugarcane harvesting, cortadores de cana-de-açúcar e colheita de cana-de-açúcar. Os critérios de inclusão foram artigos publicados entre janeiro de 1997 a junho de 2017, que avaliaram as condições de trabalho e os efeitos na saúde em trabalhadores cortadores de cana-de-açúcar. Foram excluídos aqueles que não tratassem do impacto do trabalho no corte da cana-de-açúcar queimada e não queimada na saúde do cortador. O grupo final de manuscritos foi selecionado pelo autor principal deste estudo e revisado por um coautor. As discordâncias foram resolvidas por consenso usando os critérios de inclusão e exclusão predefinidos e, quando necessário, a decisão final foi realizada consultando um terceiro coautor. RESULTADOS: De 89 artigos encontrados, 52 atenderam aos critérios de seleção e foram avaliados. Os estudos mostraram que os cortadores trabalham em condições de sobrecarga física e mental, sobrecarga térmica, exposição a poluentes e sujeitos a acidentes. Os principais efeitos observados foram respiratórios, cardiovasculares, renais, osteomusculares, estresse por calor, desidratação, genotóxicos e decorrente de acidentes. CONCLUSÕES: O trabalho no corte manual da cana-de-açúcar, principalmente da cana-de-açúcar queimada, expõem os trabalhadores a diversos riscos, com variados impactos à saúde. A redução de riscos com exposição à poluição e sobrecarga térmica e física se impõe como medida para preservação da saúde do trabalhador

    Peripheral oxygen saturation, heart rate, and blood pressure during dental treatment of children with cyanotic congenital heart disease

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    OBJECTIVES: In this observational study, we evaluated the peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate, and blood pressure of children with cyanotic congenital heart disease who were undergoing dental extraction. METHODS: Forty-four patients between the ages of 6 and 12 years who underwent upper primary tooth extraction were included in the study. Of these, 20 patients were in the cyanotic congenital heart disease group and 24 were in the control group. RESULTS: Peripheral oxygen saturation, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure in the cyanotic congenital heart disease group varied quite significantly during the treatment protocol (

    Panbronquiolite difusa: uma doença subdiagnosticada? Estudo de quatro casos no Brasil

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    BACKGROUND: Diffuse panbronchiolitis is a clinical pathologic condition characterized by chronic inflammation of respiratory bronchioles, with clinical features that position it as a differential diagnosis among the sinopulmonary syndromes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present 4 cases (1 Black, 2 Japanese descendants, and 1 Japanese), living in Brazil, in which the diagnosis was made by the clinical and radiological features and confirmed by transbronchial biopsy. The clinical findings included chronic sinusitis, productive cough, rhonchi, and wheezes. The pulmonary function tests showed an obstructive pattern. High resolution computerized tomography showed a diffuse nodular pattern, airway ectasia, and airway wall thickening. The biopsy showed interstitial accumulation of foam cells and lymphoid cells in the walls of respiratory bronchioles: 2 of our cases had bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue hyperplasia. We searched for the HLA Bw54 in all of our patients, but only 1 was positive. A low dose macrolide treatment was introduced, resulting in with clinical and functional improvement. A score that rated the extent of nodules, airway ectasia, mucus plugging, and airway wall thickening was applied on pre- and post-treatment High resolution computerized tomography results, revealing an improvement in tomographic pattern related to that observed in the pulmonary function tests. CONCLUSION: We conclude that diffuse panbronchiolitis is a systemic disease that is not exclusive to the Asian population, whose clinical and radiological features should be better known by occidental pulmonary physicians.INTRODUÇÃO: A Panbronquiolite Difusa é uma entidade clínico-patológica caracterizada pela inflamação crônica dos bronquíolos respiratórios e que, clinicamente, apresenta-se como diagnóstico diferencial das síndromes sino-pulmonares. MÉTODOS E RESULTADOS: Apresentamos 4 casos (um negro, dois descendentes de japoneses e um japonês), que moram no Brasil, nos quais a suspeita diagnóstica se baseou nos aspectos clínicos e radiológicos e foi confirmada através da biópsia transbrônquica. As principais características clínicas eram sinusite crônica, tosse produtiva, além da presença de roncos e sibilos. Os testes de função pulmonar evidenciaram um padrão obstrutivo. A tomografia de tórax de alta resolução demonstrou um padrão nodular difuso, além de ectasia e espessamento das paredes das vias aéreas. O exame histológico evidenciou acúmulo intersticial de macrófagos xantomatosos e infiltração de linfócitos na região dos bronquíolos respiratórios, sendo que 2 de nossos casos ainda apresentaram hiperplasia de tecido linfocitário associado aos brônquios. Investigamos a presença do HLA Bw54 nos quatro casos, sendo apenas um positivo. Após o diagnóstico, instituiu-se o tratamento com macrolídeos em dose baixa, tendo como resultado melhora clínica e funcional. Um escore que avalia a extensão do padrão nodular, a ectasia e o espessamento das vias aéreas e ainda o grau de impactação mucóide visíveis à tomografia foi utilizado pré e pós tratamento evidenciando uma melhora compatível com a observada à função pulmonar. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que a Panbronquiolite Difusa é uma doença sistêmica, não exclusiva da população oriental, cujas características clínicas e radiológicas devem ser melhor conhecidas pelos médicos ocidentais

    A real-life study of the effectiveness of different pharmacological approaches to the treatment of smoking cessation: re-discussing the predictors of success

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    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, nortriptyline and combination therapy and describe factors associated with treatment success. INTRODUCTION: Clinical trials clearly demonstrate the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in smoking cessation. However, it is only after its use in real-life settings that clinical effectiveness and limitations of a treatment are fully known. METHODS: Patients attended a four-session cognitive-behavioral program and received medicines free of charge. Abstinence from smoking was assessed at each visit. RESULTS: A total of 868 smokers (68.8% women) were included. Their mean age was 49.6 years; the amount smoked was 25 cigarettes/day and the Fagerströ m Score was 6.6. Abstinence rates after 6 months and 1 year were 36.5% and 33.6%. In univariate analysis, male gender, age (>;50), higher number of cigarettes smoked, cardiovascular comorbidities, longer interval from the last cigarette and combined treatment of nortriptyline plus NRT were predictive of abstinence, while neuropsychiatric comorbidities and the answer ''yes'' to the question ''Do you smoke more often during the first hours after waking'' were correlated with failure. In a multivariate model, predictors of abstinence were neuropsychiatric comorbidities, the answer ''yes'' to the question ''Do you smoke more often during the first hours after waking'' and combined treatment of nortriptyline plus NRT. Male gender and a longer period from the last cigarette were correlated with lower abstinence rate. CONCLUSION: Satisfactory success rates were obtained in a teaching hospital. Factors such as age, daily cigarette consumption, number of pack-years and dependency score were not reliable markers of abstinence. The combination nortriptyline+NRT was independently associated with higher abstinence rates

    A real‐life study of the effectiveness of different pharmacological approaches to the treatment of smoking cessation: re‐discussing the predictors of success

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    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, nortriptyline and combination therapy and describe factors associated with treatment success. INTRODUCTION: Clinical trials clearly demonstrate the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in smoking cessation. However, it is only after its use in real-life settings that clinical effectiveness and limitations of a treatment are fully known. METHODS: Patients attended a four-session cognitive-behavioral program and received medicines free of charge. Abstinence from smoking was assessed at each visit. RESULTS: A total of 868 smokers (68.8% women) were included. Their mean age was 49.6 years; the amount smoked was 25 cigarettes/day and the Fagerströ m Score was 6.6. Abstinence rates after 6 months and 1 year were 36.5% and 33.6%. In univariate analysis, male gender, age (>50), higher number of cigarettes smoked, cardiovascular comorbidities, longer interval from the last cigarette and combined treatment of nortriptyline plus NRT were predictive of abstinence, while neuropsychiatric comorbidities and the answer ''yes'' to the question ''Do you smoke more often during the first hours after waking'' were correlated with failure. In a multivariate model, predictors of abstinence were neuropsychiatric comorbidities, the answer ''yes'' to the question ''Do you smoke more often during the first hours after waking'' and combined treatment of nortriptyline plus NRT. Male gender and a longer period from the last cigarette were correlated with lower abstinence rate. CONCLUSION: Satisfactory success rates were obtained in a teaching hospital. Factors such as age, daily cigarette consumption, number of pack-years and dependency score were not reliable markers of abstinence. The combination nortriptyline+NRT was independently associated with higher abstinence rates

    Smoking: what has been addressed in brazilian journals

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    O tema tabagismo, em seus vários aspectos, vem recebendo crescente atenção entre os pesquisadores ao longo dos últimos anos, o que tem se refletido em maior e mais sólida produção científica sobre o assunto em periódicos nacionais. Este artigo tem como objetivo comentar os estudos que abordaram o tema tabagismo publicados entre janeiro de 2010 e junho de 2012, nas revistas Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Clinics (São Paulo), Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira e Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular. No período foram publicados 58 artigos, 52 originais, abordando variados aspectos, como efeitos na saúde, epidemiologia, cessação e estudos experimentais

    The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation

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    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation in smokers and subjects enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Program (referred to as quitters). METHOD: A total of 33 subjects with a median (IQR) smoking history of 34 (20-58) pack years were examined for nasal mucociliary clearance using a saccharine transit test, mucus properties using contact angle and sneeze clearability tests, and quantification of inflammatory and epithelial cells, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. Twenty quitters (mean age: 51 years, 9 male) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 12 months after smoking cessation, and 13 smokers (mean age: 52 years, 6 male) were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02136550. RESULTS: Smokers and quitters showed similar demographic characteristics and morbidities. At baseline, all subjects showed impaired nasal mucociliary clearance (mean 17.6 min), although 63% and 85% of the quitters demonstrated significant nasal mucociliary clearance improvement at 1 month and 12 months, respectively. At 12 months, quitters also showed mucus sneeze clearability improvement (∼26%), an increased number of macrophages (2-fold) and no changes in mucus contact angle or cytokine concentrations. CONCLUSION: This study showed that smoking cessation induced early improvements in nasal mucociliary clearance independent of mucus properties and inflammation. Changes in mucus properties were observed after only 12 months of smoking cessation

    Epidemiological vigilance system for accidents at work: first results from an experience in the Northern zone of S. Paulo City (Brazil)

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    The epidemiological approach to occupational accidents and diseases adopted in Brazil is inadequate for many reasons, among them being: 1) the fact that only employers may notify work accidents, thus permitting notorious undernotification of these occupational hazards; 2) the available information does not permit a better understanding of the causal relationship between work accidents and diseases; 3) the official policy exists only for purposes of insurance compensation. The official documents for occupational disease and accident registration are the CTA (Work accident report) and FTA (Casualty treatment card). The Worker's Health Program of SUDS-R-6 proposed, in October, 1988 a method for the codification, registration in a micro-computer data bank and analysis of this information, based on the records presently in use (CAT) for public health service planning and accident prevention purposes. The major interest was in identifying the most common types of accidents in the region and the work environments in which they most frequently occur. The target population were the workers who attended the health units licenced to deal with work accidents and diseases, in the Northern region of S. Paulo City. The data presented below refer to the months of October, November and December, 1988, the first three months of the project. During that period a total of 2,339 accidents were registered. They were classified as: typical work accidents - 87%: commuting accidents which occurred between the home and the work-place - 18% and work diseases (only 2 cases). The majority of workers (50%) were between 25 and 45 years of age, approximately 7% were under 18. Male workers represented 83.2% of accident cases. The most affected area of the body were the fingers and hands (31.5%). Collisions with objects present in the work environment (17.5%) and heavy weights falling on the body (16.9%) were the main causes of accidents. The medical diagnosis showed that about 60% were contusions and wounds without fractures. Of the accidents registered, 371 (15.86%) were considered serious, with a high incidence of contusion and trauma with fracture. As the data were taken from CAT no deaths were observed, because this event occurs generally after the accidents and is registered on the FTA. The majority of work accidents (75%) led to an estimated less than 15 days' sick leave on the first medical examination. Approximately 15.5% of the accidents registered in the period studied occurred in the civil construction and engineering industries. The identification of the interprises or industries with the highest accidents rates has given rise to the definition of the first criterion for the planning of the Worker's Health Program. The incidence of accidents involving fingers and hands, 31.5% of all accidents studied, has permitted the establishment of priorities for the structuring of health care services. The small number of work diseases observed is due in part to undernotification and also to the fact that medical assistance for work diseases had been centralized outside the area studied until December 1988. The records used for the notification of accidents at work are problematic, but the fact they are well known makes them useful as a basis on which epidemiological studies may be developed. As far as in known, this is the first attempt made in Brazil to correlate information from the CAT of a particular health region with the objective of establishing guide-lines for health planning. This project is being continued and further developed with the incorporation of the FTA data in the analysis. It is hoped that after the experience in this limited area, the system might be applied in other health regions of the city and maybe all over the country. The experience may also be useful in modifying the records presently in use and simplifying the bureaucracy involved.No Brasil, e em São Paulo em particular, o sistema de vigilância epidemiológica restringe-se a algumas doenças transmissíveis, não havendo, na prática, vigilância referente a doenças não transmissíveis, especialmente às decorrentes do trabalho. O atual sistema de informações para acidentes e doenças do trabalho tem sido utilizado mais para o processamento de benefícios aos acidentados e acometidos por doenças do trabalho, do que para a proposta de um sistema de vigilância. Assim, foi elaborado projeto visando a utilizar os instrumentos em uso nesse sistema de notificação, para extrair informações que possam, dentro de uma abordagem epidemiológica, dar suporte ao planejamento das atividades de saúde. O projeto encontra-se em andamento no Programa de Saúde dos Trabalhadores do SUDS-R-6 (Mandaqui), Região da Grande São Paulo (Brasil), e objetiva identificar os tipos de acidentes mais comuns na região e os ambientes de trabalho nos quais esses acidentes ocorrem com mais freqüência. Os primeiros dados analisados, correspondentes ao período de outubro a novembro de 1989, mostraram uma média de 780 acidentes mensais. As mãos e os dedos foram as partes do corpo mais atingidas, cerca de 31,5% de todos os acidentes estudados, particularmente causados por máquinas e equipamentos na indústria metalúrgica. Dos acidentes registrados, 371 (15,86%) foram considerados graves, com uma alta incidência de contusões e traumas com fraturas. Das CAT estudadas, 2.030 (87%) foram decorrentes de acidentes típicos e 298 (12,7%) de trajeto. Aproximadamente 7%, 165 casos, ocorreram em trabalhadores menores de 18 anos de idade e 10 casos tinham idade inferior a 14 anos de idade. A identificação das companhias dos ramos da construção civil, metalúrgica e indústria gráfica como aquelas que apresentam o maior número de acidentes, definiu os primeiros critérios para o planejamento das atividades do Programa de Saúde dos Trabalhadores do SUDS-R-6
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