121 research outputs found

    Parental smoking patterns and their association with wheezing in children

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    OBJECTIVE: To investigate parental smoking patterns and their association with wheezing in children. METHODS: We performed a case-control study that included 105 children between 6 and 23 months of age who were divided into two groups: cases (children with 3 previous episodes of wheezing) and controls (healthy children without wheezing). The children's exposure to cigarette smoking was estimated using a questionnaire completed by the mothers and by the children's urinary cotinine levels. RESULTS: Based on both the questionnaire results and cotinine levels, exposure to cigarette smoking was higher in the households of cases in which the incidence of maternal smoking was significantly higher than that of paternal smoking. Children in this group were more affected by maternal smoking and by the total number of cigarettes smoked inside the house. Additionally, the questionnaire results indicated that the risk of wheezing was dose dependent. The presence of allergic components, such as atopic dermatitis and siblings with allergic rhinitis and asthma, greatly increased the odds ratio when wheezing was associated with cotinine levels. CONCLUSION: Children exposed to tobacco smoke have an increased risk of developing wheezing syndrome. This risk increases in association with the number of cigarettes smoked inside the house and the presence of other allergic components in the family

    Follow-up of the air pollution and the human male-to-female ratio analysis in São Paulo, Brazil: a times series study

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    Objectives in order to assess if ambient air pollution in urban areas could be related to alterations in male/female ratio this study objectives to evaluate changes in ambient particulate matter (PM10) concentrations after implementation of pollution control programmes in São Paulo city and the secondary sex ratio (SRR).Design and methods A time series study was conducted. São Paulo's districts were stratified according to the PM10 concentrations levels and were used as a marker of overall air pollution. the male ratio was chosen to represent the secondary sex ratio (SSR=total male birth/total births). the SSR data from each area was analysed according to the time variation and PM10 concentration areas using descriptive statistics. the strength association between annual average of PM10 concentration and SSR was performed through exponential regression, and it was adopted as a statistical significance level of p<0.05.Results the exponential regression showed a negative and significant association between PM10 and SSR. SSR varied from 51.4% to 50.7% in São Paulo in the analysed period (2000-2007). Considering the PM10 average concentration in São Paulo city of 44.72g/m(3) in the study period, the SSR decline reached almost 4.37%, equivalent to 30934 less male births.Conclusions Ambient levels of PM10 are negatively associated with changes in the SSR. Therefore, we can speculate that higher levels of particulate pollution could be related to increased rates of female births.Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)Universidade Federal de São Paulo UNIFESP, ICAQF, Dept Ciencias Exatas & Terra, São Paulo, BrazilUniv São Paulo, Sch Med, Dept Pathol, Lab Expt Air Pollut LIM05, São Paulo, BrazilUniversidade Federal de São Paulo UNIFESP, ICAQF, Dept Ciencias Exatas & Terra, São Paulo, BrazilCNPq: 573813/2008-5: FAPESP - 2008/57717-6Web of Scienc

    Reduction of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) and incidence of pulmonary lesions in mice kept in plenum chamber microenvironmental ventilation system

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    In the plenum chamber microenvironmental ventilation system (MEV) for laboratory animal housing, air exchanges are made directly inside animal cages. In this study we measured the daily levels of ammonia (NH3) in cages without beddingchanges and made comparative histopathologieal analyscs of mice born and kept in two different systems. Mice were kept under the MEV (n = 40, in five cages) and general diluting ventilation (GDV) (n= 32, in four cages) systems for nine days. In the MEV system. NH3 was not detected in the first three days, the highest concentration occurred on the seventh day (5.00 +/- 2.90ppm). On the ninth day, a level of 2.50 +/- 1.70 ppm was measured. In GDV. NH3 was detected from the first day, and the highest levels were observed on the third and fifth day (31.20 +/- 12.50 ppm), respectively. Front the fourth to the ninth day, the GDV system presented higher concentrations of NH3 than the MIEV system (p&lt; 0.05). Histopathologieal analyses of lungs of six female mice from each group were performed after keeping mice in the two systems for 56 days. In the score evaluation, the incidence ofehrunie focal pneumonia, catarrhal bronchitis, and interstitial pneumonia was significantly higher (p&lt; 0.05) in the GDV group. Using morphometry, it was observed that animals from the GDV system showed a significant increase (p&lt;005) in the volume fractions of the epithelium, when compared to thc MEV system (2450 +/- 5.60 um3/um2 and 19.70 +/- 4.90 um3/um2, respectively). An estimator of the numerical density of nuclei over 100 um of basement membrane was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) in animals from the GDV system. when compared to animals from theMEV system (14.60 +/- 3.00 and 10.84 +/- 3.00, respectively). It was shown that animals kept in the MEV system presented better health condition than animals kept in the GDV system

    Risk assessment of PM2.5 to child residents in Brazilian Amazon region with biofuel production

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    Background: Exposure to fine fractions of particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with increased hospital admissions and mortality for respiratory and cardiovascular disease in children and the elderly. This study aims to estimate the toxicological risk of PM2.5 from biomass burning in children and adolescents between the age of 6 and 14 in Tangara da Serra, a municipality of Subequatorial Brazilian Amazon. Methods: Risk assessment methodology was applied to estimate the risk quotient in two scenarios of exposure according to local seasonality. The potential dose of PM2.5 was estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation, stratifying the population by age, gender, asthma and Body Mass Index (BMI). Results: Male asthmatic children under the age of 8 at normal body rate had the highest risk quotient among the subgroups. The general potential average dose of PM2.5 was 1.95 mu g/kg.day (95% CI: 1.62 - 2.27) during the dry scenario and 0.32 mu g/kg. day (95% CI: 0.29 - 0.34) in the rainy scenario. During the dry season, children and adolescents showed a toxicological risk to PM2.5 of 2.07 mu g/kg. day (95% CI: 1.85 - 2.30). Conclusions: Children and adolescents living in the Subequatorial Brazilian Amazon region were exposed to high levels of PM2.5 resulting in toxicological risk for this multi-pollutant. The toxicological risk quotients of children in this region were comparable or higher to children living in metropolitan regions with PM2.5 air pollution above the recommended limits to human health.CNPq/INCT/MCT [573797/2008-343 CNPq/CT-18]State University of Mato Grosso (UNEMAT)University of São Paul

    Differences between postmortem computed tomography and conventional autopsy in a stabbing murder case

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    Objective: The aim of the present work is to analyze the differences and similarities between the elements of a conventional autopsy and images obtained from postmortem computed tomography in a case of a homicide stab wound. Method: Comparison between the findings of different methods: autopsy and postmortem computed tomography. Results: In some aspects, autopsy is still superior to imaging, especially in relation to external examination and the description of lesion vitality. However, the findings of gas embolism, pneumothorax and pulmonary emphysema and the relationship between the internal path of the instrument of aggression and the entry wound are better demonstrated by postmortem computed tomography. Conclusions: Although multislice computed tomography has greater accuracy than autopsy, we believe that the conventional autopsy method is fundamental for providing evidence in criminal investigations

    Indoor NO2 air pollution and lung function of professional cooks

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    Studies ofcooking- generated NO2 effects are rare in occupational epidemiology. in the present study, we evaluated the lung function of professional cooks exposed to NO2 in hospital kitchens. We performed spirometry in 37 cooks working in four hospital kitchens and estimated the predicted FVC, FEV1 and FEF25-75, based on age, sex, race, weight, and height, according to Knudson standards. NO2 measurements were obtained for 4 consecutive days during 4 different periods at 20-day intervals in each kitchen. Measurements were performed inside and outside the kitchens, simultaneously using Palm diffusion tubes. A time/exposure indicator was defined as representative of the cumulative exposure of each cook. No statistically significant effect of NO2 exposure on FVC was found. Each year of work as a cook corresponded to a decrease in predicted FEV1 of 2.5% (P=0.046) for the group as a whole. When smoking status and asthma were included in the analysis the effect of time/exposure decreased about 10% and lost statistical significance. On predicted FEF25-75, a decrease of 3.5% (P=0.035) was observed for the same group and the inclusion of controllers for smoking status and asthma did not affect the effects of time/exposure on pulmonary function parameter. After a 10-year period of work as cooks the participants of the study may present decreases in both predicted FEV1 and FEF25-75 that can reach 20 and 30%, respectively. the present study showed small but statistically significant adverse effects of gas stove exposure on the lung function of professional cooks.Univ São Paulo, Fac Med, Lab Poluicao Atmosfer Expt, BR-01246903 São Paulo, SP, BrazilUniversidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista Med, Dept Med, Disciplina Clin Med,Grp Fisiopatol Pulmonar & Pol, São Paulo, SP, BrazilABC, Fac Med, Dept Saude Coletividade, Santo Andre, SP, BrazilUniv Catolica Santos, Programa Posgrad Saude Coletiva, Santos, SP, BrazilCtr Univ Araraquara, Lab Fisioterapia Cardioresp, Araraquara, SP, BrazilUniv Estadual Paulista, Inst Quim, Araraquara, SP, BrazilHarvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth, Exposure Epidemiol & Risk Program, Boston, MA 02115 USAUniv Santo Amaro, Fac Med, Programa Pediat Ambiental, São Paulo, SP, BrazilUniversidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista Med, Dept Med, Disciplina Clin Med,Grp Fisiopatol Pulmonar & Pol, São Paulo, SP, BrazilWeb of Scienc

    Analysis of atmospheric aerosol (PM2.5) in Recife city, Brazil

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    Several studies indicate that mortality and morbidity can be well correlated to atmospheric aerosol concentrations with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5). In this work the PM2.5 at Recife city was analyzed as part of a main research project (INAIRA) to evaluate the air pollution impact on human health in six Brazilian metropolitan areas. The average concentration, for 309 samples (24-hr), from June 2007 to July 2008, was 7.3 µg/m³, with an average of 1.1 µg/m³ of black carbon. The elemental concentrations of samples were obtained by x-ray fluorescence. The concentrations were then used for characterizing the aerosol, and also were employed for receptor modelling to identify the major local sources of PM2.5. Positive matrix factorization analysis indicated six main factors, with four being associated to soil dust, vehicles and sea spray, metallurgical activities, and biomass burning, while for a chlorine factor, and others related to S, Ca, Br, and Na, we could make no specific source association. Principal component analysis also indicated six dominant factors, with some specific characteristics. Four factors were associated to soil dust, vehicles, biomass burning, and sea spray, while for the two others, a chlorine- and copper-related factor and a nickel-related factor, it was not possible to do a specific source association. The association of the factors to the likely sources was possible thanks to meteorological analysis and sources information. Each model, although giving similar results, showed factors’ peculiarities, especially for source apportionment. The observed PM2.5 concentration levels were acceptable, notwithstanding the high urbanization of the metropolitan area, probably due to favorable conditions for air pollution dispersion. More than a valuable historical register, these results should be very important for the next analysis, which will correlate health data, PM2.5 levels, and sources contributions in the context of the six studied Brazilian metropolisesHewlett FoundationCNPqFAPES
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