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    Contactless electroreflectance, in the range of 20 K \u3c T \u3c 300 K, of freestanding wurtzite GaN prepared by hydride-vapor-phase epitaxy

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    We have performed a detailed contactless electroreflectance study of the interband excitonic transitions on both the Ga and N faces of a 200-μm-thick freestanding hydride-vapor-phase-epitaxy grown wurtzite GaN sample with low defect concentration in the temperature range between 20 and 300 K. The transition energies of the A, B, and C excitons and broadening parameters of the A and B excitons have been determined by least-square fits to the first derivative of a Lorentzian line shape. The energy positions and separations of the excitonic transitions in the sample reveal the existence of residual strain. At 20 K the broadening parameter of A exciton deduced for the Ga (5×105 dislocation cm−2) and N (1×107 dislocation cm−2) faces are 3 and 7 meV, respectively, indicating a lower defect concentration on the former face. The parameters that describe the temperature dependence of the interband transition energies of the A, B, and C excitons as well as the broadening function of the A and B features are evaluated. The results from an analysis of the temperature dependence of the broadening function of excitons A and B indicate that GaN exhibits a very large exciton-phonon coupling

    Performance of a prototype active veto system using liquid scintillator for a dark matter search experiment

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    We report the performance of an active veto system using a liquid scintillator with NaI(Tl) crystals for use in a dark matter search experiment. When a NaI(Tl) crystal is immersed in the prototype detector, the detector tags 48% of the internal K-40 background in the 0-10 keV energy region. We also determined the tagging efficiency for events at 6-20 keV as 26.5 +/- 1.7% of the total events, which corresponds to 0.76 +/- 0.04 events/keV/kg/day. According to a simulation, approximately 60% of the background events from U, Th, and K radioisotopes in photomultiplier tubes are tagged at energies of 0-10 keV. Full shielding with a 40-cm-thick liquid scintillator can increase the tagging efficiency for both the internal K-40 and external background to approximately 80%.Comment: Submitted to Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section

    L2L_2 boosting in kernel regression

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    In this paper, we investigate the theoretical and empirical properties of L2L_2 boosting with kernel regression estimates as weak learners. We show that each step of L2L_2 boosting reduces the bias of the estimate by two orders of magnitude, while it does not deteriorate the order of the variance. We illustrate the theoretical findings by some simulated examples. Also, we demonstrate that L2L_2 boosting is superior to the use of higher-order kernels, which is a well-known method of reducing the bias of the kernel estimate.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.3150/08-BEJ160 the Bernoulli (http://isi.cbs.nl/bernoulli/) by the International Statistical Institute/Bernoulli Society (http://isi.cbs.nl/BS/bshome.htm