911 research outputs found

    Use of urinary gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) to monitor the pattern of proteinuria in dogs with leishmaniasis treated with N-methylglucamine antimoniate

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    The aim of this study was to assess if the coupled analysis of the urinary protein to creatinine (UPC) ratio and of the GGT/UC ratio (the ratio between urinary gamma-glutamyl transferase activity and urinary creatinine) may be used in treated leishmaniotic dogs to differentiate dogs with transient impairment of tubular function from dogs with persistent tubular damage. To this aim, 40 urine from 10 proteinuric and leishmaniotic dogs that at the first visit had high GGT/UC ratio, consistent with tubular damage, were collected and analyzed before treatments and 2, 4 and 6 weeks after treatment with N-methylglucamine antimoniate and allopurinol. Compared with pre-treatment values, at the end of the study period the UPC ratio decreased only in 5/10 dogs, which, however, were still proteinuric or borderline proteinuric. Conversely, the GGT/CU ratio decreased in 8/10 dogs and in 3 of them the values at the end of the study period were below the threshold consistent with tubular proteinuria. The GGT/UC values at 6 weeks was significantly lower than before treatment. However, transient increases were frequent for both the analytes. These results indicate that in most of the dogs that remain proteinuric after treatment, likely due to the persistent glomerular damage, the GGT/UC ratio tends to normalize. This suggests that in these dogs tubular proteinuria at admission depends on functional impairment of tubular cells likely due to the overflow of proteins from damaged glomeruli. However, tubular proteinuria occasionally persists, suggesting that tubulointerstitial damages persist even in dogs responsive to treatments

    Evaluation of the analytical variability of dipstick protein pads in canine urine

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    BackgroundThe dipstick is a first-line and inexpensive test that can exclude the presence of proteinuria in dogs. However, no information is available about the analytical variability of canine urine dipstick analysis. ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to assess the analytical variability in 2 dipsticks and the inter-operator variability in dipstick interpretation. MethodsCanine urine supernatants (n = 174) were analyzed with 2 commercially available dipsticks. Two observers evaluated each result blinded to the other observer and to the results of the other dipstick. Intra- and inter-assay variability was assessed in 5 samples (corresponding to the 5 different semi-quantitative results) tested 10 consecutive times over 5 consecutive days. The agreement between observers and between dipsticks was evaluated with Cohen's k test. ResultsIntra-assay repeatability was good (3/10 errors), whereas inter-assay variability was higher (from 1/5 to 4/5 discordant results). The concordance between the operators (k = 0.68 and 0.79 for the 2 dipsticks) and that of the dipsticks (k = 0.66 and 0.74 for the 2 operators) was good. However, 1 observer and 1 dipstick overestimated the results compared with the second observer or dipstick. In any case, discordant results accounted for a single unit of the semi-quantitative scale. ConclusionsAs for any other method, analytic variability may affect the semi-quantitation of urinary proteins when using the dipstick method. Subjective interpretation of the pad and, to a lesser extent, intrinsic staining properties of the pads could affect the results. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of this variability on clinical decisions

    Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals in Shetland Sheepdogs

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    Background: Several breeds have physiological peculiarities that induce variations in reference intervals (RIs) compared with the general canine population. Shetland sheepdogs (SSs) are reported to be more predisposed to different diseases (eg, hyperlipidemia, gallbladder mucocele, and hypothyroidism). Consequently, a breed-specific approach is more often required. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether the RIs of the general canine population could be applied to that of SSs, and to generate breed-specific RIs, where appropriate. Methods: Sixty\ua0clinically healthy and fasted SSs (36% of the population registered at the Italian Breed association) were examined. Routine hematology and biochemistry analyses were performed. The transference method was used to compare the results of SSs with the RIs of the general canine population. When these RIs were not validated, new RIs were generated according to the guidelines of the American Society of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Differences associated with sex, age, coat color, and whether used as a pet, a herding dog, or an agility dog were also investigated. Results: The transference method validated for 30/38 SS RIs. For 6 of the remaining 8 variables, the difference with the claimed RIs could depend on preanalytical or analytical artifacts, whereas for glucose and total cholesterol, these differences could depend on breed peculiarities. However, in all SSs, the concentration of cholesterol was <12.95\ua0mmol/L. Relevant differences associated with sex, age, coat color, and use were not found. Conclusions: This study suggests that breed-specific RIs should be used for glucose and cholesterol in SSs

    Preliminary validation study of Paraoxonase-1 in horses

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    Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is an anti-oxidant enzyme associated with high-density lipoproteins in blood. PON-1 is a negative acute-phase protein being its plasmatic activity reduced during inflammation due to consumption by oxidants. Considering the possible clinical usefulness of PON-1 as an early inflammatory marker this is a preliminary validation study in horses. Serum PON-1 activity was measured in 69 clinically healthy animals (31 adult female, 18 geldings, 11 stallions, 9 foals) using an enzymatic method adapted from other species. In order to preliminarily assess the possible utility of PON-1 as a marker of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), blood from 6 sick foals, classified according to a validated SIRS scale, was analyzed. Intra- and inter-assay imprecision were assessed by repeated analysis of pooled samples and evaluation of coefficient of variations (CV). Accuracy was indirectly evaluated through linearity under dilution (LUD) and spiking recovery test (SRT). Results of the different groups of healthy horses were compared to each other with a Friedmann test with Bonferroni correction. The method is precise (inter- and inter-assay CVs &lt;5%) and accurate (LUD and SRT fit the linear model). PON-1 activity was higher in foals and in adult females (mean ± SD: 63.7±15.5 and 60.8±10.1, respectively) than in geldings and adult males (52.5±10.2 and 47.2±7.7, respectively). In 3/6 SIRS foals PON-1 activity was lower than the lowest percentile of distribution of healthy foals. This study demonstrated that the method of measurement of PON-1 activity in horses is precise and accurate and PON-1 may be a marker of SIRS


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    The Local Health Authority of Reggio Emilia, supported by the Manodori Foundation, decided to implement this innovative social-health care pathway that was created together with other 14 organizations in the Province of Reggio Emilia: they are Associations, labor union, training institutions, social cooperatives, and so on… Together, we created a network to address the need to go back to work of cancer patients. What happens to the working age patients with cancer in Reggio Emilia? First of all first of all the HCPs who meet the patients for diagnostic or curative reasons ask for information about the work situation. On the basis of this very first information collected, if the patient is judged at risk to lose the job he is referred to the network hub of UNA MANO: the Informa-salute service. Here, a Nurse, together with other trained personnel, make the first true assessment of the risk to lose the job. If the patients is judged at low risk, he still receive information regarding… If the patient is judged at risk to lose the job, he is sent to the OT that make a deep, second level of assessment. After this, if the risk is confirmed as moderate, the patients will received a personalized intervention targeted to… If the risk is judged very high, or the patient as already lost the job, the social part of the network is activated to implement a personalized intervention targeted to

    Feline gut microbiota composition in association with feline coronavirus infection : a pilot study

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    Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) colonize the intestinal tract, however, due to not fully understood mutations, they can spread systemically and cause feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Recent studies on human medicine report that gut microbiota is involved in the development of systemic disorders and could influence the immune response to viral diseases. The aim of this study was to provide preliminary data on the fecal microbiota composition in healthy cats compared to FCoV-infected cats, with and without FIP. Cats were equally grouped as healthy FCoV-negative, healthy FCoV-positive or FIP affected (total n\u202f=\u202f15). Fecal sample were evaluated for the microbiota composition. A total of 3,231,916 sequences were analyzed. The samples' alpha-diversity curves did not reach a proper plateau and, for the beta-diversity, the samples seemed not to group perfectly by category, even if the healthy FCoV-positive group showed a hybrid microbial composition between FCoV-negative and FIP groups. Although there were no taxa significantly linked to the different conditions, some peculiar patterns were recognized: Firmicutes was always the most represented phylum, followed by Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. In FCoV-positive cats, the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were respectively over- and under-represented, compared to the other groups. Among FIP cats, three subjects shared a similar microbiome, one cat showed a different microbial profile and the other one had the lowest number of diverse phyla. Despite the limited number of animals, some differences in the fecal microbiome between the groups were observed, suggesting to further investigate the possible correlation between gut microbiota and FCoV infection in cats

    Assessment of susceptibility to European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma of new plum variety and five rootstock/plum variety combinations

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    Two separate experiments were carried out to assess the plum susceptibility to infection by European stone fruit yellows phytoplasmas during a five years period. Commercial varieties/cultivars and new selections grafted on Myrabolan 29C were evaluated in at least two plots of four plants each. Visual inspection and PCR/RFLP identification of phytoplasmas detected an increasing phytoplasma presence in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Eight Japanese plum selections showed ESFY symptoms or pathogen presence in the 50% of the plants and nine selections showed ESFY infection in 20% of the plants. Only nine selections showed absence of both symptoms and pathogen. Although the European selections/cultivars were not symptomatic, plants belonging to six of these cultivars were positive for phytoplasma infection. The evaluation of cultivar/rootstock combinations indicate phytoplasma presence from the first year after plantation on. Two of the rootstocks seem to induce a delay in symptoms appearance and cultivar T.C. Sun resulted to be the most susceptible to the disease independently from the rootstock employed. Keywords: Japanese plum, European plum, European stone fruit yellows phytoplasmas, resistance, disease

    Colorimetric and electrophoretic evaluation of lipoprotein fractions in healthy neonatal calves: Comparison with results from adult cows and from calves with inflammatory conditions

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    High density lipoproteins (HDLs) are pivotal in innate immunity and decrease in serum during inflammation. Several studies have been done about lipoprotein changes in transition cows but little is known about their changes in newborn calves. The aim of this study is to provide information about HDLs in newborn calves, by defining the possible age-related changes in healthy calves compared with adults and by assessing the possible differences in calves with inflammation. Lipoprotein electrophoretic separation (reported as percentages) and colorimetric measurement of HDL (HDL-C) were performed on healthy cows and calves in order to identify possible differences in the lipoprotein profile due to the age. Then, age-matched calves with inflammatory conditions were also evaluated. Results showed that in calves HDL% and VLDL% were lower (mean values ± SD: 77.6% ± 8.6% and 2.6% ± 2.5%, respectively) and LDL% was higher (19.7% ± 7.4%) than in adults (89.0% ± 3.9%; 5.2 ± 2.1% and 5.8% ± 3.1%, respectively). Sick calves revealed a decrease of both HDL% (mean values ± SD: 61.0% ± 22.1%) and HDL-C (22.8 ± 11.6 mg/dL) and an increase of VLDL% (12.1% ± 13.1%) compared with controls (77.6% ± 8.6%; 41.5 ± 11.2 mg/dL and 2.6% ± 2.5%, respectively). Paraoxonase-1 activity, influenced by inflammation and oxidation, was measured, and it appeared correlated with HDL% and HDL-C in sick calves. In conclusion, this study revealed that HDLs concentration in healthy calves is lower than in adults, and further decreases in calves with inflammation, likely due to oxidation

    Comparison of three blood transfusion guidelines applied to 31 feline donors to minimise the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections

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    Objectives The increased demand for animal blood transfusions creates the need for an adequate number of donors. At the same time, a high level of blood safety must be guaranteed and different guidelines (GLs) deal with this topic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of different GLs in preventing transfusion-transmissible infections (TTI) in Italian feline blood donors. Methods Blood samples were collected from 31 cats enrolled as blood donors by the owners' voluntary choice over a period of approximately 1 year. Possible risk factors for TTI were recorded. Based on Italian, European and American GLs, specific TTI, including haemoplasmas, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia species, Bartonella species, Babesia species, Theileria species, Cytauxzoon species, Leishmania donovani sensu lato and feline coronavirus (FCoV) were screened. Rapid antigen and serological tests and biomolecular investigations (PCR) were used. Several PCR protocols for haemoplasma and FeLV DNA were compared. Results The presence of at least one recognised risk factor for TTI was reported in all cats. Results for FIV and FeLV infections were negative using rapid tests, whereas five (16.1%) cats were positive for FCoV antibodies. Four (12.9%) cats were PCR positive for haemoplasma DNA and one (3.2%) for FeLV provirus, the latter being positive only using the most sensitive PCR protocol applied. Other TTI were not detected using PCR. Conclusions and relevance Blood safety increases by combining the recommendations of different GLs. To reduce the risk of TTI, sensitive tests are needed and the choice of the best protocol is a critical step in improving blood safety. The cost and time of the screening procedures may be reduced if appropriate tests are selected. To this end, the GLs should include appropriate recruitment protocols and questionnaire-based risk profiles to identify suitable donors
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