129 research outputs found

    AMS measurements of cosmogenic and supernova-ejected radionuclides in deep-sea sediment cores

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    Samples of two deep-sea sediment cores from the Indian Ocean are analyzed with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to search for traces of recent supernova activity around 2 Myr ago. Here, long-lived radionuclides, which are synthesized in massive stars and ejected in supernova explosions, namely 26Al, 53Mn and 60Fe, are extracted from the sediment samples. The cosmogenic isotope 10Be, which is mainly produced in the Earths atmosphere, is analyzed for dating purposes of the marine sediment cores. The first AMS measurement results for 10Be and 26Al are presented, which represent for the first time a detailed study in the time period of 1.7-3.1 Myr with high time resolution. Our first results do not support a significant extraterrestrial signal of 26Al above terrestrial background. However, there is evidence that, like 10Be, 26Al might be a valuable isotope for dating of deep-sea sediment cores for the past few million years.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, Proceedings of the Heavy Ion Accelerator Symposium on Fundamental and Applied Science, 2013, will be published by the EPJ Web of conference

    The Search for Supernova-produced Radionuclides in Terrestrial Deep-sea Archives

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    An enhanced concentration of 60Fe was found in a deep ocean's crust in 2004 in a layer corresponding to an age of ~2 Myr. The confirmation of this signal in terrestrial archives as supernova-induced and detection of other supernova-produced radionuclides is of great interest. We have identified two suitable marine sediment cores from the South Australian Basin and estimated the intensity of a possible signal of the supernova-produced radionuclides 26Al, 53Mn, 60Fe and the pure r-process element 244Pu in these cores. A finding of these radionuclides in a sediment core might allow to improve the time resolution of the signal and thus to link the signal to a supernova event in the solar vicinity ~2 Myr ago. Furthermore, it gives an insight on nucleosynthesis scenarios in massive stars, the condensation into dust grains and transport mechanisms from the supernova shell into the solar system

    Limits on Supernova-Associated Fe 60/Al 26 Nucleosynthesis Ratios from Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Deep-Sea Sediments

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    We searched for the presence of Al26 in deep-sea sediments as a signature of supernova influx. Our data show an exponential dependence of Al26 with the sample age that is fully compatible with radioactive decay of terrigenic Al26. The same set of samples demonstrated a clear supernova Fe60 signal between 1.7 and 3.2 Myr ago. Combining our Al26 data with the recently reported Fe60 data results in a lower limit of 0.18-0.08+0.15 for the local interstellar Fe60/Al26 isotope ratio. It compares to most of the ratios deduced from nucleosynthesis models and is within the range of the observed average galactic Fe60/Al26 flux ratio of (0.15±0.05).This work was funded in part by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), Projects No. P20434 and No. I428 (EUROCORES project EuroGENESIS, subproject CoDustMas), by BMBF Project No. 05K2016, DAAD (56266169), and by the University of Vienna

    Equal Intensity Contours for Whole-Body Vibrations Compared with Vibrations Cross-Modally Matched to Isophones

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    Abstract. In this study, two experiments were conducted to determine the curves of equal intensity perception for sinusoidal vertical whole-body vibrations (WBV) of seated subjects over the frequency range from 10Hz to 250Hz. Vibrations were presented to subjects using a at hard seat. In total, 10 participants were asked to match the intensity of dierent vibrations, using a method of adjustment. The obtained contours were compared with the threshold of vibration and to vibrations cross-modally matched to tones from isophones. The shapes of the equal intensity contours in the present study show reasonable agreement with the contours from other studies despite the use of dierent methodologies and experimental questions. The contours show a characteristic similar to the perception threshold. No dependency of vibration magnitude on the shape of the contours was found in the applied dynamic range. However, large inter-individual variations were observed. The results imply that vibration curves that are cross-modally matched to isophones show similar characteristics

    Application of the accelerator mass spectrometry technique to the study of the marine sediments dynamics

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    Utilizando la técnica de Espectrometría de Masas con Aceleradores se ha determinado la relación entre el radionucleido 10Be (T½ = 1,39 Ma) y su isótopo estable 9Be en siete muestras de sedimentos submarinos. Estas muestras, con relaciones isotópicas 10Be/9Be del orden de 10^-8, constituyen un primer perfil de 275 m de profundidad cercano al punto de contacto entre las placas tectónicas de Nazca, Antártica y Sudamericana. Debido al decaimiento del 10Be, su concentración disminuye con la edad del sedimento, la cual se espera que aumente linealmente con la profundidad. Sin embargo, en este trabajo se encontraron aumentos en la concentración de 10Be entre los 100 y 150 metros y entre los 200 y 250 metros de profundidad. Este resultado es consistente con un proceso de plegamiento de los sedimentos provocado por la subducción de la placa tectónica de Nazca.Using the accelerator mass spectrometry technique, the ratio between the radionuclide 10Be (T½ = 1.39 Ma) and its stable isotope 9 Be in seven submarine sediment samples has been determined. These samples, with 10Be/9 Be isotopic ratios of the order of 10-8, constitute a first 275 m-deep profile near the point where Nazca, Antarctica and South American tectonic plates join each other. Due to the decay of 10Be, its concentration decreases with the age of the sediment, which is expected to increase linearly with the depth. However, in this study we found increments in the 10Be concentration between 100 and 150 meters and between 200 and 250 meters of depth. This result is consistent with a sediments plication process produced by subduction of the Nazca tectonic plate.Fil: Rodrigues Ferreira Maltez, Dario Pablo. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Gerencia del Área de Investigación y Aplicaciones No Nucleares. Gerencia Física (Centro Atómico Constituyentes). Proyecto Tandar; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Korschinek, G.. Technische Universitat München; AlemaniaFil: Merchel, S.. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf; AlemaniaFil: Rugel, G.. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf; AlemaniaFil: Arazi, Andres. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Gerencia del Área de Investigación y Aplicaciones No Nucleares. Gerencia Física (Centro Atómico Constituyentes). Proyecto Tandar; ArgentinaFil: Martí, Guillermo Virginio. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Gerencia del Área de Investigación y Aplicaciones No Nucleares. Gerencia Física (Centro Atómico Constituyentes). Proyecto Tandar; Argentin

    金融发展对经济增长的影响——来自APEC国家1981-2000年的证据

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    本研究使用修正的增长模型,考察APEC(APEC)国家1981-2000年的金融发展是否促进了经济增长。本文主要关注金融发展的三个方面对经济增长的影响:股票市场、银行业和资本流动。为了降低国别因素的影响,本模型把研究对象区分为发达成员国与发展中成员国以进行更深入的分析。结果显示,在上述三个方面中,只有股票市场的发展对经济增长产生了显著的增强效应,特别是在发达的成员国中。这一正相关关系即使在控制同步偏差(simultaneity bias)后仍然十分显著。因此,无证据表明,金融体系的发展水平一定会影响本研究中金融-增长的总体关系。译者单位:厦门理工学院外语#厦门大学外文学院(36100#361024

    Age and date for early arrival of the Acheulian in Europe (Barranc de la Boella, la Canonja, Spain)

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    The first arrivals of hominin populations into Eurasia during the Early Pleistocene are currently considered to have occurred as short and poorly dated biological dispersions. Questions as to the tempo and mode of these early prehistoric settlements have given rise to debates concerning the taxonomic significance of the lithic assemblages, as trace fossils, and the geographical distribution of the technological traditions found in the Lower Palaeolithic record. Here, we report on the Barranc de la Boella site which has yielded a lithic assemblage dating to ,1 million years ago that includes large cutting tools (LCT). We argue that distinct technological traditions coexisted in the Iberian archaeological repertoires of the late Early Pleistocene age in a similar way to the earliest sub-Saharan African artefact assemblages. These differences between stone tool assemblages may be attributed to the different chronologies of hominin dispersal events. The archaeological record of Barranc de la Boella completes the geographical distribution of LCT assemblages across southern Eurasia during the EMPT (Early-Middle Pleistocene Transition, circa 942 to 641 kyr). Up to now, chronology of the earliest European LCT assemblages is based on the abundant Palaeolithic record found in terrace river sequences which have been dated to the end of the EMPT and later. However, the findings at Barranc de la Boella suggest that early LCT lithic assemblages appeared in the SW of Europe during earlier hominin dispersal episodes before the definitive colonization of temperate Eurasia took place.The research at Barranc de la Boella has been carried out with the financial support of the Spanish Ministerio de Economı´a y Competitividad (CGL2012- 36682; CGL2012-38358, CGL2012-38434-C03-03 and CGL2010-15326; MICINN project HAR2009-7223/HIST), Generalitat de Catalunya, AGAUR agence (projects 2014SGR-901; 2014SGR-899; 2009SGR-324, 2009PBR-0033 and 2009SGR-188) and Junta de Castilla y Leo´n BU1004A09. Financial support for Barranc de la Boella field work and archaeological excavations is provided by the Ajuntament de la Canonja and Departament de Cultura (Servei d’Arqueologia i Paleontologia) de la Generalitat de Catalunya. A. Carrancho’s research was funded by the International Excellence Programme, Reinforcement subprogramme of the Spanish Ministry of Education. I. Lozano-Ferna´ndez acknowledges the pre-doctoral grant from the Fundacio´n Atapuerca. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

    Search for Dark Matter with CRESST

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    The search for direct interactions of dark matter particles remains one of the most pressing challenges of contemporary experimental physics. A variety of different approaches is required to probe the available parameter space and to meet the technological challenges. Here, we review the experimental efforts towards the detection of direct dark matter interactions using scintillating crystals at cryogenic temperatures. We outline the ideas behind these detectors and describe the principles of their operation. Recent developments are summarized and various results from the search for rare processes are presented. In the search for direct dark matter interactions, the CRESST-II experiment delivers competitive limits, with a sensitivity below 5x10^(-7) pb on the coherent WIMP-nucleon cross section.Comment: Accepted for publication in New Journal of Physics. 25 pages, 18 figure
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