55 research outputs found

    Nonparametric nonlinear model predictive control

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    Model Predictive Control (MPC) has recently found wide acceptance in industrial applications, but its potential has been much impeded by linear models due to the lack of a similarly accepted nonlinear modeling or databased technique. Aimed at solving this problem, the paper addresses three issues: (i) extending second-order Volterra nonlinear MPC (NMPC) to higher-order for improved prediction and control; (ii) formulating NMPC directly with plant data without needing for parametric modeling, which has hindered the progress of NMPC; and (iii) incorporating an error estimator directly in the formulation and hence eliminating the need for a nonlinear state observer. Following analysis of NMPC objectives and existing solutions, nonparametric NMPC is derived in discrete-time using multidimensional convolution between plant data and Volterra kernel measurements. This approach is validated against the benchmark van de Vusse nonlinear process control problem and is applied to an industrial polymerization process by using Volterra kernels of up to the third order. Results show that the nonparametric approach is very efficient and effective and considerably outperforms existing methods, while retaining the original data-based spirit and characteristics of linear MPC

    Temperature-ramped 129Xe spin-exchange optical pumping

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    We describe temperature-ramped spin-exchange optical pumping (TR-SEOP) in an automated high-throughput batch-mode 129Xe hyperpolarizer utilizing three key temperature regimes: (i) “hot”where the 129Xe hyperpolarization rate is maximal, (ii) “warm”-where the 129Xe hyperpolarization approaches unity, and (iii) “cool” where hyperpolarized 129Xe gas is transferred into a Tedlar bag with low Rb content (<5 ng per ∼1 L dose) suitable for human imaging applications. Unlike with the conventional approach of batch-mode SEOP, here all three temperature regimes may be operated under continuous high-power (170 W) laser irradiation, and hyperpolarized 129Xe gas is delivered without the need for a cryocollection step. The variable-temperature approach increased the SEOP rate by more than 2-fold compared to the constant-temperature polarization rate (e.g., giving effective values for the exponential buildup constant γSEOP of 62.5 ± 3.7 × 10−3 min−1 vs 29.9 ± 1.2 × 10−3 min−1) while achieving nearly the same maximum %PXe value (88.0 ± 0.8% vs 90.1% ± 0.8%, for a 500 Torr (67 kPa) Xe cell loadingcorresponding to nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging (NMR/MRI) enhancements of ∼3.1 × 105 and ∼2.32 × 108 at the relevant fields for clinical imaging and HP 129Xe production of 3 T and 4 mT, respectively); moreover, the intercycle “dead” time was also significantly decreased. The higher-throughput TR-SEOP approach can be implemented without sacrificing the level of 129Xe hyperpolarization or the experimental stability for automation-making this approach beneficial for improving the overall 129Xe production rate in clinical settings

    Measuring 129Xe transfer across the blood‐brain barrier using MR spectroscopy

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    Purpose This study develops a tracer kinetic model of xenon uptake in the human brain to determine the transfer rate of inhaled hyperpolarized 129Xe from cerebral blood to gray matter that accounts for the effects of cerebral physiology, perfusion and magnetization dynamics. The 129Xe transfer rate is expressed using a tracer transfer coefficient, which estimates the quantity of hyperpolarized 129Xe dissolved in cerebral blood under exchange with depolarized 129Xe dissolved in gray matter under equilibrium of concentration. Theory and Methods Time‐resolved MR spectra of hyperpolarized 129Xe dissolved in the human brain were acquired from three healthy volunteers. Acquired spectra were numerically fitted with five Lorentzian peaks in accordance with known 129Xe brain spectral peaks. The signal dynamics of spectral peaks for gray matter and red blood cells were quantified, and correction for the 129Xe T1 dependence upon blood oxygenation was applied. 129Xe transfer dynamics determined from the ratio of the peaks for gray matter and red blood cells was numerically fitted with the developed tracer kinetic model. Results For all the acquired NMR spectra, the developed tracer kinetic model fitted the data with tracer transfer coefficients between 0.1 and 0.14. Conclusion In this study, a tracer kinetic model was developed and validated that estimates the transfer rate of HP 129Xe from cerebral blood to gray matter in the human brain

    Longitudinal lung function assessment of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 using 1H and 129Xe lung MRI

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    BACKGROUND: Microvascular abnormalities and impaired gas transfer have been observed in patients with COVID-19. The progression of pulmonary changes in these patients remains unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do patients hospitalised due to COVID-19 without evidence of architectural distortion on structural imaging show longitudinal improvements in lung function measured using 1H and 129Xe magnetic resonance imaging between 6-52 weeks after hospitalisation? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients who were hospitalised due to COVID-19 pneumonia underwent a pulmonary 1H and 129Xe MRI protocol at 6, 12, 25 and 51 weeks after hospital admission in a prospective cohort study between 11/2020 and 02/2022. Imaging protocol: 1H ultra-short echo time, contrast enhanced lung perfusion, 129Xe ventilation, 129Xe diffusion weighted and 129Xe spectroscopic imaging of gas exchange. RESULTS: 9 patients were recruited (57±14 [median±interquartile range] years, 6/9 male). Patients underwent MRI at 6 (N=9), 12 (N=9), 25 (N=6) and 51 (N=8) weeks after hospital admission. Patients with signs of interstitial lung damage were excluded. At 6 weeks, patients demonstrated impaired 129Xe gas transfer (red blood cell to membrane fraction) but lung microstructure was not increased (apparent diffusion coefficient and mean acinar airway dimensions). Minor ventilation abnormalities present in four patients were largely resolved in the 6-25 week period. At 12 weeks, all patients with lung perfusion data (N=6) showed an increase in both pulmonary blood volume and flow when compared to 6 weeks, though this was not statistically significant. At 12 weeks, significant improvements in 129Xe gas transfer were observed compared to 6-week examinations, however 129Xe gas transfer remained abnormally low at weeks 12, 25 and 51. INTERPRETATION: 129Xe gas transfer was impaired up to one year after hospitalisation in patients who were hospitalised due to COVID-19 pneumonia, without evidence of architectural distortion on structural imaging, whereas lung ventilation wa normal at 52 weeks

    Place stigma as boundary-making from the outside in: the case of Cronulla

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    \u27But she\u27s brown\u27, says the little girl in the rock pool, glancing at my daughter. \u27Yes she is\u27. The girl is persistent: \u27Why?\u27\u27 Because her daddy is brown\u27. A lightbulb moment (my daughter and I suddenly \u27make sense\u27, together), a smile and an invitation: \u27She can play with my body board\u27. A surfer-wetsuit folded down, a heavily tattooed torso-strides with purpose towards a Tanzanian man and his daughter, playing at Cronulla Beach. \u27I see you here a lot\u27. This sentence is thrown forth in a gruff tone. My husband\u27s mind starts hatching plans to keep our little girl safe, should this situation get ugly. \u27Yes, we come down here most days, when it\u27s warm\u27. The surfer smiles, \u27That\u27s great\u27

    Dissolved 129Xe lung MRI with four‐echo 3D radial spectroscopic imaging: quantification of regional gas transfer in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

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    Purpose Imaging of the different resonances of dissolved hyperpolarized xenon‐129 (129Xe) in the lung is performed using a four‐echo flyback 3D radial spectroscopic imaging technique and is evaluated in healthy volunteers (HV) and subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Theory and Methods 10 HV and 25 subjects with IPF underwent dissolved 129Xe MRI at 1.5T. IPF subjects underwent same day pulmonary function tests to measure forced vital capacity and the diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). A four‐point echo time technique with k‐space chemical‐shift modeling of gas, dissolved 129Xe in lung tissue/plasma (TP) and red blood cells (RBC) combined with a 3D radial trajectory was implemented within a 14‐s breath‐hold. Results Results show an excellent chemical shift separation of the dissolved 129Xe compartments and gas contamination removal, confirmed by a strong agreement between average imaging and global spectroscopy RBC/TP ratio measurements. Subjects with IPF exhibited reduced imaging gas transfer when compared to HV. A significant increase of the amplitude of RBC signal cardiogenic oscillation was also observed. In IPF subjects, DLCO% predicted was significantly correlated with RBC/TP and RBC/GAS ratios and the correlations were stronger in the inferior and periphery sections of the lungs. Conclusion Lung MRI of dissolved 129Xe was performed with a four‐echo spectroscopic imaging method. Subjects with IPF demonstrated reduced xenon imaging gas transfer and increased cardiogenic modulation of dissolved xenon signal in the RBCs when compared to HV