22,045 research outputs found

    Non-Clinical Benefits of Evidence - Based Veterinary Medicine

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    <div><strong>Clinical bottom line</strong></div><ul><li>There are few studies addressing business benefits of EBVM.</li><li>While the need for a wider adoption of EBVM has been highlighted and linked to commercial benefits, further empirical studies are needed to identify and quantify such linkages.</li></ul><p><br /> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access" /> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed" /></p

    The Evidence Base for Developing a Veterinary Business Management Curriculum

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    <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This paper sets out to highlight the ongoing need for integrated teaching of business skills in the veterinary curriculum.</p><p><strong>Background:</strong> In response to the changing environment of the veterinary profession, it is important to understand the future needs of veterinary practitioners. While changes to the veterinary curriculum have been made in recent years, they have been highly varied across schools and little evidence is available on how these have improved students’ non-technical skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and attitudes. </p><p><strong>Evidentiary value:</strong> This literature review of 23 papers provides a solid basis for the further development of knowledge on business management issues in veterinary curricula. The impact on practice from our findings is substantial. The role of clinicians in academia is recognised as a primary source of engaging students with business management through their day-to-day teaching. Furthermore, the role of first-opinion vets who take on placement students (known as extra mural studies or ‘EMS’ in the UK) cannot be underestimated as they play an essential role in ensuring that students perceive business skills with the same importance as clinical skills.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> This research draws on the findings of 23 papers that emerged as relevant from the structured literature search.  The search yielded 124 papers but many were excluded because they focused on issues beyond the search strategy, did not report empirical findings so were based largely on discussion and conjecture, were not about the undergraduate veterinary curriculum, were not written in English or were not related to business teaching.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong> Employers of recent graduates highly value business skills, and often base their hiring decision on non-technical skills, rather than clinical skills. While changes to the veterinary curriculum have been made to include more non-technical training by individual veterinary schools, it is unclear how effective these programmes have been.</p><p><strong>Conclusion: </strong> Veterinarians have identified a need for greater inclusion of business skills in the veterinary curriculum, however successfully integrating business skills into the curriculum will mean that students learn business principles in non-traditional, non-lecture-style environments with materials inter-twining with clinical teaching. This will mean a significant shift from traditional classroom based delivery of business lectures to an integrated approach. This can only be achieved if business and clinical teaching staff work together in delivering business education to the next generation of veterinarians. That said, the evidence regarding the importance of business within the veterinary medical curriculum, coupled with increasing competition in the market for first-opinion veterinary services, means that changes in the approach to teaching business may be easier to achieve than ever before.</p><p><strong>Application:</strong> The results of this research are applicable to practicing veterinarians in both academic and private practice. It is clear that business management needs to be integrated throughout the veterinary curriculum and thus ‘owned’ by academics with both clinical and non-clinical roles. Veterinarians in private practice also have a critical role to play as these people are the gatekeepers to the real-world experience that placement students encounter. </p><br /> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access" /> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed" /

    Clustering of the Diffuse Infrared Light from the COBE DIRBE maps. I. C(0)C(0) and limits on the near-IR background

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    This paper is devoted to studying the CIB through its correlation properties. We studied the limits on CIB anisotropy in the near IR (1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 \um, or J,  K,  LJ,\;K,\;L) bands at a scale of 0.7\deg\ using the COBE\footnote{ The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the {\it COBE}. Scientific guidance is provided by the {\it COBE} Science Working Group. GSFC is also responsible for the development of the analysis software and for the production of the mission data sets.} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data. In single bands we obtain the upper limits on the zero-lag correlation signal C(0)=(νδIν)2<3.6×1016,  5.1×1017,  5.7×1018C(0)= \langle(\nu \delta I_\nu)^2\rangle < 3.6 \times 10^{-16},\; 5.1 \times 10^{-17},\; 5.7 \times 10^{-18} \w2m4sr2 for the J,K,LJ,K,L bands respectively. The DIRBE data exhibit a clear color between the various bands with a small dispersion. On the other hand most of the CIB is expected to come from redshifted galaxies and thus should have different color properties. We use this observation to develop a `color subtraction' method of linear combinations of maps at two different bands. This method is expected to suppress the dominant fluctuations from foreground stars and nearby galaxies, while not reducing (or perhaps even amplifying) the extragalactic contribution to C(0)C(0). Applying this technique gives significantly lower and more isotropic limits.Comment: 44 pages postcript; includes 5 tables, 14 figures. Astrophysical Journal, in pres

    Impact of planted hedgerow fallows on nutrient balances in a groundnut/maize/cassava intercrop

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    To assess if the nutrient supply through planted tree fallows meets crop nutrient uptake and export, N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake and export by a groundnut/maize/cassava intercrop was compared with the nutrient uptake by three planted fallow systems (Senna spectabilis, Flemingia macrophylla, Dactyladenia barteri) and a no-tree control. Three cycles of two years fallow and one year cropping on Ultisol in southern Cameroon were studied. Fallows were slashed and burned. The fallow system had no consistent effect on nutrient uptake by individual crops. Crop nutrient uptake was most often highest in the S. spectabilis system. Nitrogen balances were generally negative due to N loss in the burn. Across three cropping cycles, the balance of fallow nutrient uptake versus total crop nutrient uptake was only in the S. spectabilis system positive for all nutrients. Nutrient export by all crops (mean of three years) was unaffected by fallow systems. The fallow nutrient uptake versus crop nutrient export balance was positive for all nutrients and systems. Planted fallows appear capable of acquiring sufficient nutrient stocks during fallow phases, covering the crops’ demand. Fallow N and K uptake and crop export declined with every fallow/cropping cycle

    Clustering of DIRBE Light and IR Background

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    We outline a new method for estimating the cosmic infrared background using the spatial and spectral correlation properties of infrared maps. The cosmic infrared background from galaxies should have a minimum fluctuation of the order of 10\% on angular scales of the order of 1\deg. We show that a linear combination of maps at different wavelengths can greatly reduce the fluctuations produced by foreground stars, while not eliminating the fluctuations of the background from high redshift galaxies. The method is potentially very powerful, especially at wavelengths where the foreground is bright but smooth.Comment: 7 pages postcript, talk at "Unveiling the cosmic infrared background" workshop, College Park, M

    Discovery of VHE and HE emission from the blazar 1ES 0414+009 with H.E.S.S and Fermi-LAT

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    The high energy peaked BL Lac (HBL) object 1ES 0414+009 (z=0.287) is a distant very high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) blazars with well-determined redshift. This source was detected with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) between October 2005 and September 2009. It was also detected with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in 21 months of data. The combined high energy (HE) and VHE spectra, once corrected for gamma-gamma absorption on the extragalactic background light (EBL), indicate a Compton peak located above few TeV, among the highest in the BL Lac class.Comment: proceeding from the 25th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics (Heidelberg, Germany, 2010

    UAV as a Reliable Wingman: A Flight Demonstration

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    In this brief, we present the results from a flight experiment demonstrating two significant advances in software enabled control: optimization-based control using real-time trajectory generation and logical programming environments for formal analysis of control software. Our demonstration platform consisted of a human-piloted F-15 jet flying together with an autonomous T-33 jet. We describe the behavior of the system in two scenarios. In the first, nominal state communications were present and the autonomous aircraft maintained formation as the human pilot flew maneuvers. In the second, we imposed the loss of high-rate communications and demonstrated an autonomous safe “lost wingman” procedure to increase separation and reacquire contact. The flight demonstration included both a nominal formation flight component and an execution of the lost wingman scenario