73,231 research outputs found

    Feasibility Of One–Dedicated–Lane Bus Rapid Transit ⁄Light–Rail Systems And Their Expansion To Two–Dedicated–Lane Systems: A Focus On Geometric Configuration And Performance Planning, MTI Report 08-01

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    This report consists primarily of two parts, the first on feasibility and the next on space minimization. In the section on feasibility, we propose the concept of a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) or light–rail system that effectively requires only one dedicated but reversible lane throughout the system to support two-way traffic in the median of a busy commute corridor with regular provision of left–turn lanes. Based on key ideas proposed in that section, the section on space minimization first addresses how to implement a two–dedicated–lane BRT or light–rail system with minimum right–of–way width and then proposes ways to expand a one–dedicated–lane system to two dedicated lanes. In a one–dedicated–lane system, traffic crossing is accommodated on the otherwise unused or underused median space resulting from provision of the left–turn lanes. Although not necessary, some left–turn lanes can be sacrificed for bus stops. Conceptual design options and geometric configuration sketches for the bus stop and crossing space are provided in the section on feasibility, which also discusses system performance in terms of travel speed, headway of operations, distance between two neighboring crossing spaces, and number of crossing spaces. To ensure practicality, we study implementation of such a system on an existing corridor. Such a system is also useful as an intermediate step toward a two–dedicated–lane system because of its potential for facilitating transit–oriented development. In typical existing or planned BRT or light–rail systems implemented with two dedicated traffic lanes, a space equivalent to four traffic lanes is dedicated for a bus stop. In the section on space minimization, we propose implementations requiring only three lanes at a bus stop, based on two key ideas proposed for a one–dedicated–lane system. That section also discusses ways to expand a one–dedicated–lane system to its corresponding two–dedicated–lane system

    The ordered K-theory of a full extension

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    Let A be a C*-algebra with real rank zero which has the stable weak cancellation property. Let I be an ideal of A such that I is stable and satisfies the corona factorization property. We prove that 0->I->A->A/I->0 is a full extension if and only if the extension is stenotic and K-lexicographic. As an immediate application, we extend the classification result for graph C*-algebras obtained by Tomforde and the first named author to the general non-unital case. In combination with recent results by Katsura, Tomforde, West and the first author, our result may also be used to give a purely K-theoretical description of when an essential extension of two simple and stable graph C*-algebras is again a graph C*-algebra.Comment: Version IV: No changes to the text. We only report that Theorem 4.9 is not correct as stated. See arXiv:1505.05951 for more details. Since Theorem 4.9 is an application to the main results of the paper, the main results of this paper are not affected by the error. Version III comments: Some typos and errors corrected. Some references adde

    Spectrum of low-lying s3QQˉs^{3}Q\bar{Q} configurations with negative parity

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    Spectrum of low-lying five-quark configurations with strangeness quantum number S=−3S=-3 and negative parity is studied in three kinds of constituent quark models, namely the one gluon exchange, Goldstone Boson exchange, and instanton-induced hyperfine interaction models, respectively. Our numerical results show that the lowest energy states in all the three employed models are lying at ∼\sim1800 MeV, about 200 MeV lower than predictions of various quenched three-quark models. In addition, it is very interesting that the state with the lowest energy in one gluon exchange model is with spin 3/2, but 1/2 in the other two models.Comment: Version published in Phys. Rev.

    Electronic Interface Reconstruction at Polar-Nonpolar Mott Insulator Heterojunctions

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    We report on a theoretical study of the electronic interface reconstruction (EIR) induced by polarity discontinuity at a heterojunction between a polar and a nonpolar Mott insulators, and of the two-dimensional strongly-correlated electron systems (2DSCESs) which accompany the reconstruction. We derive an expression for the minimum number of polar layers required to drive the EIR, and discuss key parameters of the heterojunction system which control 2DSCES properties. The role of strong correlations in enhancing confinement at the interface is emphasized.Comment: 7 pages, 6 figures, some typos correcte

    Probing the plateau-insulator quantum phase transition in the quantum Hall regime

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    We report quantum Hall experiments on the plateau-insulator transition in a low mobility In_{.53} Ga_{.47} As/InP heterostructure. The data for the longitudinal resistance \rho_{xx} follow an exponential law and we extract a critical exponent \kappa= .55 \pm .05 which is slightly different from the established value \kappa = .42 \pm .04 for the plateau transitions. Upon correction for inhomogeneity effects, which cause the critical conductance \sigma_{xx}^* to depend marginally on temperature, our data indicate that the plateau-plateau and plateau- insulator transitions are in the same universality class.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures (.eps

    Nonlinear lift and pressure distribution of slender conical bodies with strakes at low speeds

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    Nonlinear lift and pressure distribution of slender conical bodies with strakes at low spee

    Controlling doping in graphene through a SiC substrate: A first-principles study

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    Controlling the type and density of charge carriers by doping is the key step for developing graphene electronics. However, direct doping of graphene is rather a challenge. Based on first-principles calculations, a concept of overcoming doping difficulty in graphene via substrate is reported.We find that doping could be strongly enhanced in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide substrate. Compared to free-standing graphene, the formation energies of the dopants can decrease by as much as 8 eV. The type and density of the charge carriers of epitaxial graphene layer can be effectively manipulated by suitable dopants and surface passivation. More importantly, contrasting to the direct doping of graphene, the charge carriers in epitaxial graphene layer are weakly scattered by dopants due to the spatial separation between dopants and the conducting channel. Finally, we show that a similar idea can also be used to control magnetic properties, for example, induce a half-metallic state in the epitaxial graphene without magnetic impurity doping

    Cosmological Models and Latest Observational Data

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    In this note, we consider the observational constraints on some cosmological models by using the 307 Union type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the 32 calibrated Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) at z>1.4z>1.4, the updated shift parameter RR from WMAP 5-year data (WMAP5), and the distance parameter AA of the measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak in the distribution of SDSS luminous red galaxies with the updated scalar spectral index nsn_s from WMAP5. The tighter constraints obtained here update the ones obtained previously in the literature.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures, 1 table, revtex4; v2: discussions added, accepted by Eur. Phys. J. C; v3: published versio
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