9,839 research outputs found

    Stability of naked singularities and algebraically special modes

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    We show that algebraically special modes lead to the instability of naked singularity spacetimes with negative mass. Four-dimensional negative-mass Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetimes are unstable. Stability of the Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter spacetime depends on boundary conditions. We briefly discuss the generalization of these results to charged and rotating singularities.Comment: 6 pages. ReVTeX4. v2: Minor improvements and extended discussion on boundary conditions. Version to appear in Phys. Rev.

    The Bell-Szekeres Solution and Related Solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell Equations

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    A novel technique for solving some head-on collisions of plane homogeneous light-like signals in Einstein-Maxwell theory is described. The technique is a by-product of a re-examination of the fundamental Bell-Szekeres solution in this field of study. Extensions of the Bell-Szekeres collision problem to include light-like shells and gravitational waves are described and a family of solutions having geometrical and topological properties in common with the Bell-Szekeres solution is derived.Comment: 18 pages, Latex fil

    Electrodynamics in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe: Maxwell and Dirac fields in Newman-Penrose formalism

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    Maxwell and Dirac fields in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime is investigated using the Newman-Penrose method. The variables are all separable, with the angular dependence given by the spin-weighted spherical harmonics. All the radial parts reduce to the barrier penetration problem, with mostly repulsive potentials representing the centrifugal energies. Both the helicity states of the photon field see the same potential, but that of the Dirac field see different ones; one component even sees attractive potential in the open universe. The massless fields have the usual exponential time dependencies; that of the massive Dirac field is coupled to the evolution of the cosmic scale factor aa. The case of the radiation filled flat universe is solved in terms of the Whittaker function. A formal series solution, valid in any FRW universe, is also presented. The energy density of the Maxwell field is explicitly shown to scale as a‚ąí4a^{-4}. The co-moving particle number density of the massless Dirac field is found to be conserved, but that of the massive one is not. Particles flow out of certain regions, and into others, creating regions that are depleted of certain linear and angular momenta states, and others with excess. Such current of charged particles would constitute an electric current that could generate a cosmic magnetic field. In contrast, the energy density of these massive particles still scales as a‚ąí4a^{-4}.Comment: 18 pages including 9 figure

    Can binary mergers produce maximally spinning black holes?

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    Gravitational waves carry away both energy and angular momentum as binary black holes inspiral and merge. The relative efficiency with which they are radiated determines whether the final black hole of mass MfM_f and spin SfS_f saturates the Kerr limit (Ōáf‚Č°Sf/Mf2‚ȧ1\chi_f \equiv S_f/M_f^2 \leq 1). Extrapolating from the test-particle limit, we propose expressions for SfS_f and MfM_f for mergers with initial spins aligned or anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We predict the the final spin at plunge for equal-mass non-spinning binaries to better than 1%, and that equal-mass maximally spinning aligned mergers lead to nearly maximally spinning final black holes (Ōáf‚ČÉ0.9988\chi_f \simeq 0.9988). We also find black holes can always be spun up by aligned mergers provided the mass ratio is small enough.Comment: 4 pages, 6 figues, sublitted to PR

    Stellar Dynamics and Black Holes

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    Chandrasekhar's most important contribution to stellar dynamics was the concept of dynamical friction. I briefly review that work, then discuss some implications of Chandrasekhar's theory of gravitational encounters for motion in galactic nuclei.Comment: Talk presented at the "Chandrasekhar Centenary Conference" (2010

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking in rotating condensates of ultracold atoms

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    We describe an equilibrium state of a rotating trapped atomic condensate, which is characterized by a non-zero internal circulation and spontaneous breaking of the rotational O(2) symmetry with all three major semiaxes of the condensate having different values. The macroscopic rotation of the condensate is supported by a mesh of quantized vortices, whose number density is a function of internal circulation. The oscillation modes of this state are computed and the Goldstone mode associated with the loss of the symmetry is identified. The possible avenues for experimental identification this state are discussed.Comment: v1: 4 pages, 3 figures; v2: 5 pages, 4 figures, minor changes, matches published versio

    Dipole Perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstrom Solution: The Polar Case

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    The formalism developed by Chandrasekhar for the linear polar perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstrom solution is generalized to include the case of dipole (l=1) perturbations. Then, the perturbed metric coefficients and components of the Maxwell tensor are computed.Comment: 16 pages, LaTeX, no figures. Submitted for publication in Physical Review

    Equilibration, generalized equipartition, and diffusion in dynamical Lorentz gases

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    We prove approach to thermal equilibrium for the fully Hamiltonian dynamics of a dynamical Lorentz gas, by which we mean an ensemble of particles moving through a dd-dimensional array of fixed soft scatterers that each possess an internal harmonic or anharmonic degree of freedom to which moving particles locally couple. We establish that the momentum distribution of the moving particles approaches a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution at a certain temperature TT, provided that they are initially fast and the scatterers are in a sufficiently energetic but otherwise arbitrary stationary state of their free dynamics--they need not be in a state of thermal equilibrium. The temperature TT to which the particles equilibrate obeys a generalized equipartition relation, in which the associated thermal energy kBTk_{\mathrm B}T is equal to an appropriately defined average of the scatterers' kinetic energy. In the equilibrated state, particle motion is diffusive

    The Effect of Sources on the Inner Horizon of Black Holes

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    Single pulse of null dust and colliding null dusts both transform a regular horizon into a space-like singularity in the space of colliding waves. The local isometry between such space-times and black holes extrapolates these results to the realm of black holes. However, inclusion of particular scalar fields instead of null dusts creates null singularities rather than space-like ones on the inner horizons of black holes.Comment: Final version to appear in PR

    Stellar Pulsations excited by a scattered mass

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    We compute the energy spectra of the gravitational signals emitted when a mass m is scattered by the gravitational field of a star of mass M >> m. We show that, unlike black holes in similar processes, the quasi-normal modes of the star are excited, and that the amount of energy emitted in these modes depends on how close the exciting mass can get to the star.Comment: 23 pages, 6 figures, RevTe
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