44,076 research outputs found

    Quantisation of second class systems in the Batalin-Tyutin formalism

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    We review the Batalin-Tyutin approach of quantising second class systems which consists in enlarging the phase space to convert such systems into first class. The quantisation of first class systems, it may be mentioned, is already well founded. We show how the usual analysis of Batalin-Tyutin may be generalised, particularly if one is dealing with nonabelian theories. In order to gain a deeper insight into the formalism we have considered two specific examples of second class theories-- the massive Maxwell theory (Proca model) and its nonabelian extension. The first class constraints and the involutive Hamiltonian are explicitly constructed. The connection of our Hamiltonian approach with the usual Lagrangian formalism is elucidated. For the Proca model we reveal the importance of a boundary term which plays a significant role in establishing an exact identification of the extra fields in the Batalin-Tyutin approach with the St\"uckelberg scalar. Some comments are also made concerning the corresponding identification in the nonabelian example.Comment: 26 pages, Latex file, e-mail [email protected] SINP-TNP/94-

    Large-Signal Simulation of 94 GHz Pulsed Silicon DDR IMPATTs Including the Temperature Transient Effect

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    In this paper large-signal modeling and simulation has been carried to study the frequency chirping due to temperature transients and the large-signal power and efficiency of pulsed silicon Double-Drift Region (DDR) Impact Avalanche Transit Time (IMPATT) device operating at 94 GHz. A large-signal simulation method based on non-sinusoidal voltage excitation incorporating the transient thermal effect has been developed by the authors. Results show that the device is capable of delivering a peak pulsed power output of 17.5 W with 12.8% efficiency when the voltage modulation is 60%. The maximum junction temperature rise is 350.2 K for a peak pulsed bias current of 6.79 A with 100 ns pulsewidth and 0.5 percent duty cycle; whereas the chirp bandwidth is 8.3 GHz

    A Study on the structure of proton

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    The structure function of the proton has been investigated and has been found to possess the power law behaviour in conformity with the empirical fits to the experimental findings. We have estimated F2_{2}(x, Q2^{2})/F2_{2}(x, Q0_{0}2^{2}) with the anomalous dimension DA_{A} predicted from the statistical model as an input and the result is found to be in good agreement with the recent data available in the deep inelastic region.Comment: 3 page
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