3,523 research outputs found

    Investigation of cavitation damage of a mechanical pump impeller in high temperature potassium quarterly progress report no. 1, 7 dec. 1964 - 28 feb. 1965

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    Cavitation damage prediction from mixed flow centrifugal pump impeller in endurance testing in high temperature potassiu

    STAT3, a hub protein of cellular signaling pathways, is triggered by β-hexaclorocyclohexane

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    Background: Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely distributed in the environment and their toxicity is mostly associated with the molecular mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Among OCPs, particular attention was focused on the effects of β-hexaclorocyclohexane (β-HCH), a widely common pollutant. A detailed epidemiological study carried out on exposed population in the “Valle del Sacco” found correlations between the incidence of a wide range of diseases and the occurrence of β-HCH contamination. Taking into account the pleiotropic role of the protein signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), its function as a hub protein in cellular signaling pathways triggered by β-HCH was investigated in different cell lines corresponding to tissues that are especially vulnerable to damage by environmental pollutants. Materials and Methods: Human prostate cancer (LNCaP), human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 468), and human hepatoma (HepG2) cell lines were treated with 10 µM β-HCH in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors for different receptors. All samples were subjected to analysis by immunoblotting and RT-qPCR. Results and Conclusions: The preliminary results allow us to hypothesize the involvement of STAT3, through both its canonical and non-canonical pathways, in response to β-HCH. Moreover, we ascertained the role of STAT3 as a master regulator of energy metabolism via the altered expression and localization of HIF-1α and PKM2, respectively, resulting in a Warburg-like effect

    Chandra and optical/IR observations of CXOJ1415.2+3610, a massive, newly discovered galaxy cluster at z~1.5

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    (Abridged) We report the discovery of CXO J1415.2+3610, a distant (z~1.5) galaxy cluster serendipitously detected in a deep, high-resolution Chandra observation targeted to study the cluster WARP J1415.1+3612 at z=1.03. This is the highest-z cluster discovered with Chandra so far. Moreover, the total exposure time of 280 ks with ACIS-S provides the deepest X-ray observation currently achieved on a cluster at z>1.5. We perform an X-ray spectral fit of the extended emission of the intracluster medium (ICM) with XSPEC, and we detect at a 99.5% confidence level the rest frame 6.7-6.9 keV Iron K_\alpha line complex, from which we obtain z_X=1.46\pm0.025. The analysis of the z-3.6\mu m color-magnitude diagram shows a well defined sequence of red galaxies within 1' from the cluster X-ray emission peak with a color range [5 < z-3.6 \mu m < 6]. The photometric redshift obtained by spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting is z_phot=1.47\pm 0.25. After fixing the redshift to z=1.46, we perform the final spectral analysis and measure the average gas temperature with a 20% error, kT=5.8^{+1.2}_{-1.0} keV, and the Fe abundance Z_Fe = 1.3_{-0.5}^{+0.8}Z_\odot. We fit the background subtracted surface brightness with a single beta--model out to 35" and derive the deprojected electron density profile. The ICM mass is 1.09_{-0.2}^{+0.3}\times 10^{13} M_\odot within 300 kpc. The total mass is M_{2500}= 8.6_{-1.7}^{+2.1} \times 10 ^{13} M_\odot for R_{2500}=(220\pm 55) kpc. Extrapolating the profile at larger radii we find M_{500}= 2.1_{-0.5}^{+0.7} \times 10 ^{14} M_\odot for R_{500} = 510_{-50}^{+55}$ kpc. This analysis establishes CXOJ1415.2+3610 as one of the best characterized distant galaxy clusters based on X-ray data alone.Comment: 12 pages, 9 figures, A\&A in press, minor modifications in the tex

    Enabling countries to apply behavioural science in using global survey data to inform their Covid-19 policies

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    The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vital importance and impact of human behaviour on viral transmission. During 2020, large amounts of global survey data were collected and made freely available to help the response. Many teams responding to the pandemic lack capacity to identify and interpret behavioural data. A collaboration of the World Health Organization’s Behavioural Insights team and UCL’s Centre for Behaviour Change designed and piloted two templates to enable survey data use during the first months of the pandemic. The first template documents key behaviours, thoughts and emotions related to the pandemic, along with social interactions and population adherence to behavioural guidelines. The second template enables countries to formulate questions or issues that they would like behavioural data to address. This collaborative process applying behavioural science theory produced structured templates to enable organisation and interpretation of survey data to inform policy and practice in different country contexts

    New XMM-Newton observation of the Phoenix cluster: properties of the cool core

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    (Abridged) We present a spectral analysis of a deep (220 ks) XMM-Newton observation of the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CL J2344-4243), which we also combine with Chandra archival ACIS-I data. We extract CCD and RGS X-ray spectra from the core region to search for the signature of cold gas, and constrain the mass deposition rate in the cooling flow which is thought to be responsible of the massive star formation episode observed in the BCG. We find an average mass deposition rate of M˙=620(190+200)stat(50+150)systM\dot M = 620 (-190 +200)_{stat} (-50 +150)_{syst} M_\odot/yr in the temperature range 0.3-3.0 keV from MOS data. A temperature-resolved analysis shows that a significant amount of gas is deposited only above 1.8 keV, while upper limits of the order of hundreds of MM_\odot/yr can be put in the 0.3-1.8 keV temperature range. From pn data we obtain M˙=210(80+85)stat(35+60)systM\dot M = 210 (-80 +85)_{stat} ( -35 +60)_{syst} M_\odot/yr, and the upper limits from the temperature-resolved analysis are typically a factor of 3 lower than MOS data. In the RGS spectrum, no line emission from ionization states below Fe XXIII is seen above 12A˚12 \AA, and the amount of gas cooling below 3\sim 3 keV has a best-fit value M˙=122122+343\dot M = 122_{-122}^{+343} MM_{\odot}/yr. In addition, our analysis of the FIR SED of the BCG based on Herschel data provides SFR=(530±50)MSFR = (530 \pm 50) M_\odot/yr, significantly lower than previous estimates by a factor 1.5. Current data are able to firmly identify substantial amount of cooling gas only above 1.8 keV in the core of the Phoenix cluster. While MOS data analysis is consistent with values as high as M˙1000\dot M \sim 1000 within 1σ1 \sigma, pn data provide M˙<500M\dot M < 500 M_\odot yr1^{-1} at 3σ3\sigma c.l. at temperature below 1.8 keV. At present, this discrepancy cannot be explained on the basis of known calibration uncertainties or other sources of statistical noise.Comment: A&A in press, typos corrected, revised text according to published versio

    Accelerated tests on Si and SiC power transistors with thermal, fastand ultra-fast neutrons

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    Neutron test campaigns on silicon (Si) and silicon carbide (SiC) power MOSFETs and IGBTs were conducted at the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II (Pavia, Italy) nuclear reactor and ChipIr-ISIS Neutron and Muon Source (Didcot, U.K.) facility. About 2000 power transistors made by STMicroelectronics were tested in all the experiments. Tests with thermal and fast neutrons (up to about 10 MeV) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor showed that single-event burnout (SEB) failures only occurred at voltages close to the rated drain-source voltage. Thermal neutrons did not induce SEB, nor degradation in the electrical parameters of the devices. SEB failures during testing at ChipIr with ultra-fast neutrons (1-800 MeV) were evaluated in terms of failure in time (FIT) versus derating voltage curves according to the JEP151 procedure of the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (JEDEC). These curves, even if scaled with die size and avalanche voltage, were strongly linked to the technological processes of the devices, although a common trend was observed that highlighted commonalities among the failures of different types of MOSFETs. In both experiments, we observed only SEB failures without single-event gate rupture (SEGR) during the tests. None of the power devices that survived the neutron tests were degraded in their electrical performances. A study of the worst-case bias condition (gate and/or drain) during irradiation was performed

    Oligomers, organosulfates, and nitrooxy organosulfates in rainwater identified by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry

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    Wet deposition is an important removal mechanism for atmospheric organic matter, and a potentially important input for receiving ecosystems, yet less than 50% of rainwater organic matter is considered chemically characterized. Precipitation samples collected in New Jersey, USA, were analyzed by negative ion ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Elemental compositions of 552 unique molecular species were determined in the mass range 50–500 Da in the rainwater. Four main groups of organic compounds were identified: compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO) only, sulfur (S) containing CHOS compounds, nitrogen (N) containing CHON compounds, and S- and N- containing CHONS compounds. Organic acids commonly identified in precipitation were detected in the rainwater. Within the four main groups of compounds detected in the rainwater, oligomers, organosulfates, and nitrooxy-organosulfates were assigned based on elemental formula comparisons. The majority of the compounds identified are products of atmospheric reactions and are known contributors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from gas phase, aerosol phase, and in-cloud reactions in the atmosphere. It is suggested that the large uncharacterized component of SOA is the main contributor to the large uncharacterized component of rainwater organic matter

    Metal-Induced Gap States at Well Defined Alkali-Halide/Metal Interfaces

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    In order to search for states specific to insulator/metal interfaces, we have studied epitaxially grown interfaces with element-selective near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). An extra peak is observed below the bulk edge onset for LiCl films on Cu and Ag substrates. The nature of chemical bonds as probed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy remains unchanged, so we regard this as evidence for metal-induced gap states(MIGS) formed by the proximity to a metal, rather than local bonds at the interface. The dependence on the film thickness shows that the MIGS are as thin as one monolayer. An ab initio electronic structure calculation supports the existence of the MIGS that are strongly localized at the interface.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures, to be published in Phys. Rev. Let