2,028 research outputs found

    ALTERATIONS IN JOINT KINEMATICS AND KINETICS DURING DOWNHILL RUNNING

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    The purpose of this investigation was to find how joint kinematics and kinetics during downhill running change compared to level running. Fifteen recreational runners ran on a force plate imbedded treadmill with three different slopes (0 º, -6º, and -9º) at a controlled speed of 3.2 m/s. Ten steps on each slope were selected for analysis. Increased knee flexion with decreased ankle plantar-flexion and hip flexion was found during downhill running compared to level running. Decreased peak propulsive ground reaction force and posterior impulse were found during downhill running compared to level running. Additionally, increased extension moment with increased negative joint power at the knee and decreased plantar-flexion moment with decreased negative joint power at the ankle were found during downhill running compared to level running

    Lumbar Interbody Fusion using Low-dose of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rh-BMP2); Minimum 1-year Follow-up Results at A Single Institute

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    Objective The authors evaluate clinical results of the lumbar interbody fusion surgery using low-dose of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein type 2(rhBMP-2) to assess the safety and efficacy of rhBMP-2. Methods 199 patients who underwent lumbar interbody fusion surgery including posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and oblique interbody fusion (OLIF) using rhBMP-2 (0.05 mg per disc) were selected. Fusion status at the operated segment was classified from grade 1 to 4, according follow-up CT scan. The occurrence of complications was observed including heterotopic ossification, postoperative radiculitis, and endplate osteolysis. Results There were 61 men and 138 women. Total surgical levels were 424 levels. According to the surgical method, 335 segments were operated with the PLIF and 89 segments with the OLIF. On follow up CT scan, fusion grade was distributed as 330 levels of grade 1 (77.8%), 66 of grade 2 (15.6%), 22 of grade 3 (5.2%), and 6 of grade 4 (1.4%). Overall fusion success rate was found to be 93.4%. According to fusion method, in PLIF group, it was distributed as 267 levels of grade 1 (79.7%), 45 of grade 2 (13.4%), 18 of grade 3 (5.4%), and 5 of grade 4 (1.5%), and in OLIF group, 63 levels of grade 1 (70.8%), 21 of grade 2 (23.6%), 4 of grade 3 (4.5%), and 1 of grade 4 (1.1%). No patient was suspected of having postoperative radiculitis related to the use of rh-BMP2. Two case showed ectopic bone formation without clinical symptom. There were 2 cases of endplate osteolysis. Conclusion The known complications is not common in the present study, which may be caused by using low-dose rhBMP-2. Further long term observations are needed to clarify these issues of such complications

    Clinical implementation of whole-genome array CGH as a first-tier test in 5080 pre and postnatal cases

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is currently the most powerful method for detecting chromosomal alterations in pre and postnatal clinical cases. In this study, we developed a BAC based array CGH analysis platform for detecting whole genome DNA copy number changes including specific micro deletion and duplication chromosomal disorders. Additionally, we report our experience with the clinical implementation of our array CGH analysis platform. Array CGH was performed on 5080 pre and postnatal clinical samples from patients referred with a variety of clinical phenotypes.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>A total of 4073 prenatal cases (4033 amniotic fluid and 40 chorionic villi specimens) and 1007 postnatal cases (407 peripheral blood and 600 cord blood) were studied with complete concordance between array CGH, karyotype and fluorescence <it>in situ </it>hybridization results. Among 75 positive prenatal cases with DNA copy number variations, 60 had an aneuploidy, seven had a deletion, and eight had a duplication. Among 39 positive postnatal cases samples, five had an aneuploidy, 23 had a deletion, and 11 had a duplication.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This study demonstrates the utility of using our newly developed whole-genome array CGH as first-tier test in 5080 pre and postnatal cases. Array CGH has increased the ability to detect segmental deletion and duplication in patients with variable clinical features and is becoming a more powerful tool in pre and postnatal diagnostics.</p

    Controlling Ferromagnetic Easy Axis in a Layered MoS2 Single Crystal

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    We report the effective methods to induce weak ferromagnetism in pristine MoS2 persisting up to room temperature with the improved transport property, which would lead to new spintronics devices. The hydrogenation of MoS2 by heating at 300 degrees C for 1 h leads to the easy axis out of plane, while the irradiation of proton with a dose of 1 x 10(13) P/cm(2) leads to the easy axis in plane. The theoretical modeling supports such magnetic easy axes.open16

    Evaluating the Allergic Risk of Genetically Modified Soybean

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    Genetically modified (GM) soybean (carrying the EPSPS transgene) is the most common GM food in Korea. In order to assess whether genetic modification increases the allergenic risk of soybeans, the allergenicity and IgE-reactive components of wild-type and GM soybean extracts were compared in allergic adults who had been sensitized to soybeans. We enrolled 1,716 adult allergy patients and 40 healthy, non-atopic controls. Skin prick tests and IgE enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed using wild-type and GM soybean extracts, along with other common inhaled allergens. The specificities of serum IgE antibodies from allergic patients and the identities of the IgE-reactive components of the soybean extracts were compared using ELISA inhibition testing, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and IgE immunoblotting. To evaluate the effects of digestive enzymes and heat treatment, the soybean extracts were heated or pre- incubated with or without simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The IgE sensitization rates to wild-type and GM soybeans were identical (3.8% of allergic adults), and circulating IgE antibodies specific for the two extracts were comparable. The results of the ELISA inhibition test, SDS-PAGE, and IgE immunoblotting showed a similar composition of IgE-binding components within the wild-type and GM extracts, which was confirmed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, IgE immunoblotting, and amino acid sequencing. None of the subjects had a positive response to purified EPSPS protein in the skin prick test, ELISA, or IgE immunoblot analysis. These findings suggest that the IgE sensitization rate to GM soybean extracts is identical to that of wild-type soybean extracts in adult allergy patients. In addition, based on both in vivo and in vitro methods, the allergenicity of wild type and GM soybean extracts was identical

    TTF-1, a homeodomain-containing transcription factor, participates in the control of body fluid homeostasis by regulating angiotensinogen gene transcription in the rat subfornical organ.

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    In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that angiotensins synthesized in the brain contribute to regulating body fluid homeostasis. Although angiotensinogen, the unique angiotensin precursor, is produced in the brain, the factors that regulate its gene expression remain unknown. We recently found that TTF-1, a homeodomain-containing transcription factor essential for the development of the fetal diencephalon, is postnatally expressed in discrete areas of the hypothalamus. We now report that the subfornical organ, an important site of angiotensinogen synthesis, is an extra-hypothalamic site of TTF-1 expression. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry demonstrated the presence of TTF-1 mRNA in angiotensinogen-producing cells of the rat subfornical organ. RNase protection assays showed that TTF-1 and angiotensinogen mRNA levels are simultaneously increased in the subfornical organ by water deprivation. The angiotensinogen promoter contains seven presumptive TTF-1 binding motifs, four of which are recognized by the TTF-1 homeodomain. In the C6 glioma cell line, TTF-1 transactivates the angiotensinogen promoter in a dose-dependent manner. This transactivation is abolished by deletion of the TTF-1 binding motif at -125. Intracranial administration of an antisense TTF-1 oligodeoxynucleotide decreased angiotensinogen mRNA in the subfornical organ and dramatically reduced the animal's water intake while increasing urine excretion. Moreover, plasma arginine vasopressin content was decreased by the same treatment. These results demonstrate a novel role for TTF-1 in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis, exerted via the transactivational control of angiotensinogen synthesis in the subfornical organ

    Systemic chemotherapy for treatment of advanced small bowel adenocarcinoma with prognostic factor analysis: retrospective study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>We sought to evaluate prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS), and to investigate the role of palliative chemotherapy using propensity score-based weighting, in patients with advanced small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA).</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Data from a total of 91 patients diagnosed with advanced SBA at the Asan Medical Center between January 1989 and December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were split into two groups, those who did and did not receive palliative chemotherapy.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Overall, 81 patients (89.0%) died, at a median survival time of 6.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5 - 7.5 months). The 40 patients receiving chemotherapy showed overall response and disease control rates of 11.1% and 37.0%, respectively, with OS and progression-free survival (PFS) of 11.8 months (95% CI, 4.6 - 19.0 months) and 5.7 months (95% CI, 3.5 - 8.0 months), respectively. The 41 patients who did not receive chemotherapy had an OS of 4.1 months (95% CI, 3.1 - 5.1 months) and a PFS of 1.3 months (95% CI, 0.8 - 1.7 months). Multivariate analysis showed that lack of tumor resection, non-prescription of chemotherapy, liver metastasis, and intra-abdominal lymph node metastasis, were all independently associated with poor survival outcomes. After inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) adjustment, the group that did not receive chemotherapy was at a significantly higher risk of mortality (HR 3.44, 95% CI 2.03 - 5.83, p < 0.001) than were patients receiving chemotherapy.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Palliative chemotherapy may improve survival outcomes in patients with advanced SBA.</p
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