32 research outputs found

    Decoding the genetic relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes: potential risk variants and future direction for North Africa

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    IntroductionAlzheimer’s disease (AD) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are both age-associated diseases. Identification of shared genes could help develop early diagnosis and preventive strategies. Although genetic background plays a crucial role in these diseases, we noticed an underrepresentation tendency of North African populations in omics studies.Materials and methodsFirst, we conducted a comprehensive review of genes and pathways shared between T2D and AD through PubMed. Then, the function of the identified genes and variants was investigated using annotation tools including PolyPhen2, RegulomeDB, and miRdSNP. Pathways enrichment analyses were performed with g:Profiler and EnrichmentMap. Next, we analyzed variant distributions in 16 worldwide populations using PLINK2, R, and STRUCTURE software. Finally, we performed an inter-ethnic comparison based on the minor allele frequency of T2D-AD common variants.ResultsA total of 59 eligible papers were included in our study. We found 231 variants and 363 genes shared between T2D and AD. Variant annotation revealed six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with a high pathogenic score, three SNPs with regulatory effects on the brain, and six SNPs with potential effects on miRNA-binding sites. The miRNAs affected were implicated in T2D, insulin signaling pathways, and AD. Moreover, replicated genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to plasma protein binding, positive regulation of amyloid fibril deposition, microglia activation, and cholesterol metabolism. Multidimensional screening performed based on the 363 shared genes showed that main North African populations are clustered together and are divergent from other worldwide populations. Interestingly, our results showed that 49 SNP associated with T2D and AD were present in North African populations. Among them, 11 variants located in DNM3, CFH, PPARG, ROHA, AGER, CLU, BDNF1, CST9, and PLCG1 genes display significant differences in risk allele frequencies between North African and other populations.ConclusionOur study highlighted the complexity and the unique molecular architecture of North African populations regarding T2D-AD shared genes. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of T2D-AD shared genes and ethnicity-specific investigation studies for a better understanding of the link behind these diseases and to develop accurate diagnoses using personalized genetic biomarkers

    Antioxidant, antibacterial, and antileishmanial potential of Micromeria nervosa extracts and molecular mechanism of action of the bioactive compound

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    Aims: This study aimed to determine the antibacterial and antileishmanial potential of Micromeria nervosa extracts. The identification of the antileishmanial compound and the study of its molecular mechanism of action have also been undertaken. Methods and results: Ethanol extract showed high polyphenol content and diethyl ether extract exhibited high DPPH scavenging and low beta-carotene bleaching activity (IC50 = 13.04 ± 0.99 and 200.18 ± 3.32 μg mL−1 , respectively). However, diethyl ether extract displayed high antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 31.25 μg mL−1 ), Staph. aureus ATCC6538 (MIC = 62.5 μg mL−1 ), and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 (MIC = 125 μg mL−1 ), as well as high antileishmanial activity against the promastigote forms of L. infantum and L. major (IC50 = 11.45 and 14.53 μg mL−1 , respectively). The active compound was purified using bioassay-guided fractionation and thin layer chromatography, and identified as ursolic acid using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and mass spectrometry. The purified compound was strongly inhibitory against the promastigote and amastigote forms of L. infantum and L. major (IC50 = 5.87 and 6.95 μg mL−1 versus 9.56 and 10. 68 μg mL−1 , respectively) without overt cytotoxicity against Raw 264.7 macrophage cells (SI = 13.53 and 11.43, respectively). The commercial compound (ursolic acid) showed similar activity against amastigotes and promastigotes forms of L. infantum and L. major. Moreover, its molecular mode of action against leishmaniasis seems to involve the expression of the ODC and SPS genes involved in thiol pathway. Conclusion: Extracts of M. nervosa can be considered as a potential alternative to antimicrobial and antileishmanial drugs

    A novel frameshift mutation (c.405delC) in the GJB2 gene associated with autosomal recessive hearing loss in two Tunisian families.

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    International audienceOBJECTIVES: Mutations in GJB2 are found to be responsible for 50% of congenital autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss, one of the most important mutations in this gene is the c.35delG, which is responsible for the majority of GJB2 related deafness in the Tunisian population. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular etiology of hearing loss in two Tunisian individuals. METHODS: We screened two Tunisian individuals affected by congenital, bilateral, profound, sensorineural hearing loss for mutations in GJB2 gene using PCR and direct sequencing. RESULTS: We identified a novel frameshift mutation in the GJB2 gene, the c.405delC resulting in a truncated protein (p.Tyr136Thrfs*32). It was found in compound heterozygosity with the c.35delG in two non-consanguineous unrelated families from Tunisia. One patient underwent a cochlear implant at 4 years. Initial evaluations post-implantation indicate a successful cochlear implant outcome since the patient began to acquire language abilities and auditory sensation. CONCLUSIONS: With this novel GJB2 mutation, the mutational spectrum of this gene continues to broaden in our population. The occurrence of biallelic GJB2 mutations for the other deaf girl, despite the neonatal pain and hypotension due to complicated delivery, led us to confirm the importance of GJB2 screening for cochlear implant candidates regardless of the etiology of deafness in populations with a relatively high frequency of GJB2 mutation carriers