59 research outputs found

    Which entrepreneurs expect to expand their businesses? Evidence from survey data in Lithuania

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    This paper presents an empirical study based on a survey of 399 small and medium size companies in Lithuania. Applying bivariate and ordered probit estimators, we investigate why some business owners intend to expand their firms, while others do not. Our main findings provide evidence that the characteristics of the owners matter. Those with higher education and ‘learning by doing’ attributes either through previous job experience or additional entrepreneurial experience are more likely to expand their businesses. In addition, the model implications include that the intentions to expand are correlated with exporting and with size of the enterprise: medium and small size companies are more likely to grow than micro enterprises and self-employed entrepreneurs. We also analyse the link between the main perceptions of constraints to business activities and growth expectations and find that the factors, which are perceived as main business barriers, are not necessary those, which are associated with low growth expectations. In particular, perceptions of both corruption and of inadequate tax systems are main barriers to growth.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/40109/3/wp723.pd

    Institutions, Networks and Entrepreneurship Development in Russia: An Exploration

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    In this paper we explore the ways in which institutions and networks influence entrepreneurial development in Russia. By utilizing new Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data collected in 2001, we investigate the effects of the weak institutional environment in Russia in terms of three dimensions: on the rate of productive entrepreneurial activity measured in terms of start-ups and existing business owners; on the characteristics of business owners; and on business financing. In addition, the analysis explores the effectiveness of Russia’s informal networks for circumventing the weak institutional environment for business development. Our results indicate that Russia’s business owners share many of the same characteristics as business owners in advanced western countries, though education is not associated with entrepreneurial activity. However, the main differences are in the sources of financing and the fact that relatively few individuals engage in productive entrepreneurial activity. Our results support the notion of the limited effectiveness of Russia’s networks for supporting entrepreneurial activity in its weak institutional environment.Entrepreneurship, Institutions, Networks, Russia

    Institutions and Entrepreneurship Development in Russia:A Comparative Perspective

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    In this paper we use a comparative perspective to explore the ways in which institutions and networks have influenced entrepreneurial development in Russia. We utilize Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data to study the effects of the weak institutional environment in Russia on entrepreneurship, comparing it first with all available GEM country samples and second, in more detail, with Brazil and Poland. Our results suggest that Russia’s institutional environment is important in explaining its relatively low levels of entrepreneurship development, where the latter is measured in terms of both number of startups and of existing business owners. In addition, Russia’s business environment and its consequences for the role of business networks contribute to the relative advantage of entrepreneurial insiders (those already in business) to entrepreneurial outsiders (newcomers) in terms of new business start-ups.

    Why Are Optimistic Entrepreneurs Successful? An Application of the Regulatory Focus Theory

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    Does entrepreneurial optimism affect business performance? Using a unique data set based on repeated survey design, we investigate this relationship empirically. Our measures of ëoptimismí and ërealismí are derived from comparing the turnover growth expectations of 133 owners-managers with the actual outcomes one year later. Our results indicate that entrepreneurial optimists perform significantly better in terms of profits than pessimists. Moreover, it is the optimist-realist combination that performs best. We interpret our results using regulatory focus theory.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/64399/1/wp914.pd

    Size Matters: Entrepreneurial Entry and Government

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    We explore the country-specific institutional characteristics likely to influence an individual's decision to become an entrepreneur. We focus on the size of the government, on freedom from corruption, and on 'market freedom' defined as a cluster of variables related to protection of property rights and regulation. We test these relationships by combining country-level institutional indicators for 47 countries with working age population survey data taken from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Our results indicate that entrepreneurial entry is inversely related to the size of the government, and more weakly to the extent of corruption. A cluster of institutional indicators representing 'market freedom' is only significant in some specifications. Freedom from corruption is significantly related to entrepreneurial entry, especially when the richest countries are removed from the sample but unlike the size of government, the results on corruption are not confirmed by country-level fixed effects models.market freedom, government, entrepreneurship, corruption

    Entrepreneurial Entry: Which Institutions Matter?

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    In this paper we explore the relationship between the individual decision to become an entrepreneur and the institutional context. We pinpoint the critical roles of property rights and the size of the state sector for entrepreneurial activity and test the relationships empirically by combining country-level institutional indicators for 44 countries with working age population survey data taken from the Global Enterprise Monitor. A methodological contribution is the use of factor analysis to reduce the statistical problems with the array of highly collinear institutional indicators. We find that the key institutional features that enhance entrepreneurial activity are indeed the rule of law and limits to the state sector. However, these results are sensitive to the level of development.entrepreneurship, property rights, access to finance

    WHY ARE OPTIMISTIC ENTREPRENEURS SUCCESSFUL? AN APPLICATION OF THE REGULATORY FOCUS THEORY

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    Does entrepreneurial optimism affect business performance? Using a unique data set based on repeated survey design, we investigate this relationship empirically. Our measures of ‘optimism’ and ‘realism’ are derived from comparing the turnover growth expectations of 133 owners-managers with the actual outcomes one year later. Our results indicate that entrepreneurial optimists perform significantly better in terms of profits than pessimists. Moreover, it is the optimist-realist combination that performs best. We interpret our results using regulatory focus theory.Entrepreneurship, Optimism, Venture Growth, Regulatory Focus Theory, Latvia

    Growth expectations of business owners:impact of human capital, firm characteristics and environmental transition

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    This paper presents an empirical study based on a survey of 399 owners of small and medium size companies in Lithuania. Applying bivariate and ordered probit estimators, we investigate why some business owners expect their firms to expand, while others do not. Our main findings provide evidence that SME owner's generic and specific human capital matter. Those with higher education and 'learning by doing' attributes, either through previous job experience or additional entrepreneurial experience, expect their businesses to expand. The expectations of growth are positively related to exporting and non-monotonically to enterprise size. In addition, we analyse the link between the perceptions of constraints to business activities and growth expectations and find that the factors, which are perceived as main business barriers, are not necessary those which are associated with reduced growth expectations. In particular, perceptions of both corruption and of inadequate tax systems seem to affect growth expectations the most

    Entrepreneurship in Russia

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    This paper presents an account of the environment faced by entrepreneurs in Russia. In section one we give a brief introduction to the country which is followed by the overview of a public policy on small and medium enterprises in the next section. The current state of SMEs and some particularities of the entrepreneurial environment are discussed in section three, whereas section four focuses on the prospects of internationalisation of Russian SMEs. In section five we draw some conclusions

    Growth expectations and financial performance of small businesses:evidence from Latvia

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    By applying regulatory focus theory, this paper investigates the impact of both initial confidence and of exactness of growth expectations on subsequent financial performance of the small firms. Drawing on the unique data set based on the repeated survey design, we make one of the first attempts to explore the complexity of this relationship empirically. Overall the findings suggest that controlling for other relevant factors, including actual growth, the entrepreneurs having higher growth expectations perform significantly better later on in terms of profitability. In addition, education has a strong modifying effect: the impact of high growth expectations on subsequent profit performance is stronger for entrepreneurs with lower level of education
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