1,748 research outputs found

    A Sub-Picosecond Digital Clock Monitoring System

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    We describe a low-cost system designed to monitor wander in digital clocks with a precision of ‚ȧ\le 1 ps. With this system we have shown that it is possible to track phase variations at the sub-picosecond level by adding noise to a reference clock. As in many cases where a clock is part of a complex distribution network small changes in temperature and other effects can lead to small changes in the a clock's phase. As a further demonstration of the system, we have used it to measure the phase changes induced in optical signals in fibers.Comment: 19 pages 26 figure

    Electron Energy Regression in the CMS High-Granularity Calorimeter Prototype

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    We present a new publicly available dataset that contains simulated data of a novel calorimeter to be installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. This detector will have more than six-million channels with each channel capable of position, ionisation and precision time measurement. Reconstructing these events in an efficient way poses an immense challenge which is being addressed with the latest machine learning techniques. As part of this development a large prototype with 12,000 channels was built and a beam of high-energy electrons incident on it. Using machine learning methods we have reconstructed the energy of incident electrons from the energies of three-dimensional hits, which is known to some precision. By releasing this data publicly we hope to encourage experts in the application of machine learning to develop efficient and accurate image reconstruction of these electrons.Comment: 7 pages, 6 figure

    Predicting the Future of the CMS Detector: Crystal Radiation Damage and Machine Learning at the LHC

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    The 75,848 lead tungstate crystals in CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider are used to measure the energy of electrons and photons produced in the proton-proton collisions. The optical transparency of the crystals degrades slowly with radiation dose due to the beam-beam collisions. The transparency of each crystal is monitored with a laser monitoring system that tracks changes in the optical properties of the crystals due to radiation from the collision products. Predicting the optical transparency of the crystals, both in the short-term and in the long-term, is a critical task for the CMS experiment. We describe here the public data release, following FAIR principles, of the crystal monitoring data collected by the CMS Collaboration between 2016 and 2018. Besides describing the dataset and its access, the problems that can be addressed with it are described, as well as an example solution based on a Long Short-Term Memory neural network developed to predict future behavior of the crystals

    Energy Resolution Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

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    The energy resolution performance of the CMS lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter is presented. Measurements were made with an electron beam using a fully equipped supermodule of the calorimeter barrel. Results are given both for electrons incident on the centre of crystals and for electrons distributed uniformly over the calorimeter surface. The electron energy is reconstructed in matrices of 3 times 3 or 5 times 5 crystals centred on the crystal containing the maximum energy. Corrections for variations in the shower containment are applied in the case of uniform incidence. The resolution measured is consistent with the design goals

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an