385 research outputs found

    Association of Mediterranean diet with peripheral artery disease: the PREDIMED randomized trial

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    Association of Mediterranean Diet With Peripheral Artery Disease: The PREDIMED Randomized Trial The role of nutrition in preventing peripheral artery disease (PAD) remains elusive. 1 Mediterranean diets reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. 2,3. They also may reduce the risk of PAD, but this hypothesis has never been tested in a randomized trial. We assessed the association of Mediterranean diets with the occurrence of symptomatic PAD in an exploratory, nonprespecified analysis of a randomized trial..

    A Review of A Priori Defined Oxidative Balance Scores Relative to Their Components and Impact on Health Outcomes

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    Oxidative Balance Scores (OBSs) are tools that have emerged to evaluate the global balance of individuals‚Äô oxidation‚ÄĒreduction status. The aim was to compare OBSs available in the literature regarding their characteristics and associations with chronic diseases in epidemiological studies. Studies that developed OBSs were searched in PubMed until August 2018. A total of 21 OBSs were identified. These OBSs presented di erent scoring schemes and di erent types of anti- and pro-oxidant components, including dietary factors (dietary intake and/or nutrient biomarkers), lifestyle factors, and medications. Most OBSs were based on over 10 components, and some included only dietary factors. Few considered weighted components in the score. Only three OBSs were validated as potential surrogates of oxidative balance through inflammation and OS-related biomarkers. Notably, all the OBSs were associated‚ÄĒto a varying degree‚ÄĒwith a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, colorectal adenomas, and di erent cancer types (colorectal and breast cancer), as well as with all-cause and cancer-related mortality. For other outcomes, e.g., prostate cancer, contradictory results were reported. In summary, there is a great heterogeneity in the definition of OBSs. Most studies are concordant in supporting that excessive OS reflected by a lower OBS has deleterious e ects on health. Unified criteria for defining the proper OBSs, valuable to gauge OS-related aspects of the diet and lifestyle that may lead to adverse health outcomes, are needed.This research was co-funded by the Health Research Fund (FIS), Acci√≥n Estrat√©gica en Salud (AES), of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, grant number PI12/00002, and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)

    Low Dietary Magnesium and Overweight/Obesity in a Mediterranean Population: A Detrimental Synergy for the Development of Hypertension. The SUN Project

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    Hypertension is the strongest independent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the association of magnesium intake with incident hypertension in a Mediterranean population, and the potential modification of this association by body mass index (BMI). We assessed 14,057 participants of the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) prospective cohort (67.0% women) initially free of hypertension. At baseline, a validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire was administered. We used Cox models adjusted for multiple socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors, and prevalent conditions present at baseline. Among a mean 9.6 years of follow-up we observed 1406 incident cases of medically diagnosed hypertension. An inverse association in multivariable-adjusted models was observed for progressively higher magnesium intake up to 500 mg/d vs. intake < 200 mg/d, which was greater among those with a BMI > 27 kg/m2. Lean participants with magnesium intake < 200 mg/d vs. >200 mg/d also had a higher risk of incident hypertension. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet did not modify these associations. In conclusion, dietary magnesium intake < 200 mg/d was independently associated with a higher risk of developing hypertension in a Mediterranean cohort, stronger for overweight/obese participants. Our results emphasize the importance of encouraging the consumption of magnesium-rich foods (vegetables, nuts, whole cereals, legumes) in order to prevent hypertension

    The role of dietary inflammatory index in cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and mortality

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    Abstract: Inflammation is an underlying pathophysiological process in chronic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In fact, a number of systematic reviews have shown the association between inflammatory biomarkers, such as CRP, IL-1 , IL-6, TNF- , IL-4, or IL-10, and cardio-metabolic diseases. Diet is one of the main lifestyle-related factors which modulates the inflammatory process. Different individual foods and dietary patterns can have a beneficial health effect associated with their anti-inflammatory properties. The dietary inflammatory index (DII) was recently developed to estimate the inflammatory potential of overall diet. The aim of this review is to examine the findings of recent papers that have investigated the association between the DII, cardio-metabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease. The relevance of the DII score in the association between inflammation and cardio-metabolic diseases is critically appraised, as well as its role in the context of healthy dietary patterns. We conclude that the DII score seems to be a useful tool to appraise the inflammatory capacity of the diet and to better understand the relationships between diet, inflammation, and cardio-metabolic diseases

    Consumo de jamón curado e incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares, hipertensión arterial o ganancia de peso

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    Fundamento y objetivo: El jam√≥n curado es uno de los alimentos caracter√≠sticos de la dieta mediterr√°nea espa√Īola. Sin embargo, no existe ning√ļn estudio epidemiol√≥gico prospectivo que haya valorado sus efectos sobre la salud humana. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la asociaci√≥n entre el consumo de jam√≥n curado y la incidencia de hipertensi√≥n arterial, enfermedad cardiovascular y/o ganancia de peso. Sujetos y m√©todo: En una cohorte epidemiol√≥gica prospectiva y din√°mica de 13.293 graduados universitarios (Proyecto SUN) se analiz√≥ la incidencia de enfermedad cardiovascular, hipertensi√≥n arterial y la ganancia de peso a lo largo de un seguimiento m√°ximo de 6 a√Īos. Se ajustaron modelos de regresi√≥n de Cox para estimar hazard ratios (riesgos relativos [RR]) tras ajustar por posibles factores de confusi√≥n. Resultados: El consumo de jam√≥n en los niveles m√°s altos (> 4 raciones/semana) no presentaba asociaci√≥n con la incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares (RR=1,02; [IC 95%: 0,44-2,39]), tras ajustar por edad, sexo, ingesta energ√©tica total y patr√≥n diet√©tico, en comparaci√≥n con los consumos inferiores a una vez por semana. Al repetir esta comparaci√≥n para la hipertensi√≥n, y tras ajustar por edad, sexo, ingesta energ√©tica total e √≠ndice de masa corporal, se encontr√≥ un RR = 0.74 (IC 95%: 0.55-1.01). En la comparaci√≥n del cambio de peso medio anual entre estas mismas categor√≠as extremas de consumo (=4 raciones) se encontr√≥ una diferencia no significativa de 0,033 kg (IC 95%: -0,041 a +0,107) en la ganancia media de peso al a√Īo tras ajustar por sexo, edad, tabaco, actividad f√≠sica e √≠ndice de masa corporal inicial. Conclusiones: Los resultados de esta cohorte no proporcionan evidencia de que el consumo de jam√≥n curado se asocie a mayor riesgo cardiovascular, de hipertensi√≥n arterial o de ganancia de peso.Background and objective: Cured ham is a characteristic food in Spanish Mediterranean diet. However, no prospective epidemiologic study assessing its effects on human health is available. Our aim was to assess the association between the consumption of cured ham and cardiovascular disease, hypertension or weight gain. Subjects and Method: In a prospective and dynamic epidemiologic cohort composed exclusively of university graduates (the SUN Project, n=13,293), we analyzed the incidence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension or average yearly weight gain after a maximum follow-up of 6 years. Cox (proportional hazards) regression models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios (relative risks [RR]) after adjusting for potential confounding. Results: No association was found between higher levels of consumption of cured ham (> 4 servings/week) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (RR=1.02; [95%CI]: 0.44-2.39), in analyses adjusted for age, sex, total energy intake and dietary pattern, compared to the consumption of less than one serving a week. When we repeated this comparison for the incidence of hypertension, and adjusting for age, sex, total energy intake and body mass index, the RR was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.55-1.01). In the comparison of average yearly weight gain between these extreme categories of cured ham consumption (=4 servings/week) a non-significant difference of 0.033 kg (95% CI: -0.041 to 0.107) was found after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, physical activity, and baseline body mass index. Conclusions: The results of this cohort study do not support any association between the consumption of cured ham and a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension or weight gain

    First sexual intercourse and subsequent regret in three developing countries

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    Purpose: Adolescents who engage in sex can be affected by a range of negative physical and psychological consequences. We intend to analyze the reasons behind first sex, regret, and the association between reasons and regret. Methods: A questionnaire was implemented to 8495 high schools students, aged 14-18, in the Philippines, El Salvador and Peru. Sexually active participants responded whether several circumstances were reasons involved in their first sexual relationship. They also responded whether they regretted having already had sexual relationships. Results: More than a third of respondents reported at least one external pressure leading to first sex, and about half reported at least one reason implying getting carried away by sexual arousal. More females affirmed they regret having already had sex. Logistic regression shows that reasons for first sex associated with regret were partner insistence, "uncontrolled situations" and seeing sexual images. These reasons were associated with regret even when love was also reported as related to first sex. Conclusions: Adolescent sexual experience is often motivated by pressure and circumstances that lower the control over their decisions concerning sex, such as external pressure (because most friends already had sex or because of partner insistence) or getting carried away by sexual arousal (through an "uncontrolled situation" or viewing sexual images) rather than by mature decisions, and this may result in later regret. Adolescents should be helped by parents, educators and policy makers to be aware of these characteristics of adolescent sex and empowered to make assertive and informed decisions concerning their sexuality

    A review of a priori defined oxidative balance scores relative to their components and impact on health outcomes

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    Oxidative Balance Scores (OBSs) are tools that have emerged to evaluate the global balance of individuals‚Äô oxidation‚ÄĒreduction status. The aim was to compare OBSs available in the literature regarding their characteristics and associations with chronic diseases in epidemiological studies. Studies that developed OBSs were searched in PubMed until August 2018. A total of 21 OBSs were identified. These OBSs presented different scoring schemes and different types of anti- and pro-oxidant components, including dietary factors (dietary intake and/or nutrient biomarkers), lifestyle factors, and medications. Most OBSs were based on over 10 components, and some included only dietary factors. Few considered weighted components in the score. Only three OBSs were validated as potential surrogates of oxidative balance through inflammation and OS-related biomarkers. Notably, all the OBSs were associated‚ÄĒto a varying degree‚ÄĒwith a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, colorectal adenomas, and different cancer types (colorectal and breast cancer), as well as with all-cause and cancer-related mortality. For other outcomes, e.g., prostate cancer, contradictory results were reported. In summary, there is a great heterogeneity in the definition of OBSs. Most studies are concordant in supporting that excessive OS reflected by a lower OBS has deleterious effects on health. Unified criteria for defining the proper OBSs, valuable to gauge OS-related aspects of the diet and lifestyle that may lead to adverse health outcomes, are needed

    Deep dry needling of trigger points located in the lateral pterygoid muscle: efficacy and safety of treatment for management of myofascial pain and temporomandibular dysfunction

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    Background: To determine whether deep dry needling (DDN) of trigger points (TPs) in the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) would significantly reduce pain and improve function, compared with methocarbamol/paracetamol medication. Material and Methods: Forty-eight patients with chronic myofascial pain located in the LPM were selected and randomly assigned to one of two groups (DDN test group, n=24; drug-treated control group, n=24). The test group received three applications of needling of the LPM once per week for three weeks, while control group patients were given two tablets of a methocarbamol/paracetamol combination every six hours for three weeks. Assessments were carried out pre-treatment, 2 and 8 weeks after finishing the treatment. Results: A statistically significant difference ( p <0.05) was detected for both groups with respect to pain reduction at rest and with mastication, but the DDN test group had significantly better levels of pain reduction. Moreover, statistically significant differences ( p <0.05) up to day 70 in the test group were seen with respect to maximum mouth opening, laterality and protrusion movements compared with pre-treatment values. Pain reduction in the test group was greater as a function of pain intensity at baseline. The evaluation of efficacy as assessed both by patients/investigators was better for the test group. 41% of the patients receiving the combination drug treatment described unpleasant side effects (mostly drowsiness). Conclusions: DDN of TPs in the LPM showed better efficacy in reducing pain and improving maximum mouth opening, laterality, and protrusion movements compared with methocarbamol/paracetamol treatment. No adverse events were observed with respect to DD
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