79 research outputs found

    Influence of pentanol and dimethyl ether blending with diesel on the combustion performance and emission characteristics in a compression ignition engine under low temperature combustion mode

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    Dimethyl ether (DME) and n-pentanol can be derived from non-food based biomass feedstock without unsettling food supplies and thus attract increasing attention as promising alternative fuels, yet some of their unique fuel properties different from diesel may significantly affect engine operation and thus limit their direct usage in diesel engines. In this study, the influence of n-pentanol, DME and diesel blends on the combustion performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine under low-temperature combustion (LTC) mode was evaluated at various engine loads (0.2–0.8 MPa BMEP) and two Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) levels (15% and 30%). Three test blends were prepared by adding different proportions of DME and n-pentanol in baseline diesel and termed as D85DM15, D65P35, and D60DM20P20 respectively. The results showed that particulate matter (PM) mass and size-resolved PM number concentration were lower for D85DM15 and D65P35 and the least for D60DM20P20 compared with neat diesel. D60DM20P20 turned out to generate the lowest NOx emissions among the test blends at high engine load, and it further reduced by approximately 56% and 32% at low and medium loads respectively. It was found that the combination of medium EGR (15%) level and D60DM20P20 blend could generate the lowest NOx and PM emissions among the tested oxygenated blends with a slight decrease in engine performance. THC and CO emissions were higher for oxygenated blends than baseline diesel and the addition of EGR further exacerbated these gaseous emissions. This study demonstrated a great potential of n-pentanol, DME and diesel (D60DM20P20) blend in compression ignition engines with optimum combustion and emission characteristics under low temperature combustion mode, yet long term durability and commercial viability have not been considered.Postprint (author's final draft

    Thermal Management in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: a Real-Time Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Implementation

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    © 2017 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.A real-time nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) for the thermal management (TM) of the electrical components cooling circuit in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is presented. The electrical components are highly temperature-sensitive and therefore working out of the ranges recommended by the manufacturer can lead to their premature aging or even failure. Consequently, the goals for an accurate and efficient TM are two: to keep the main component, the Li-ion battery, within optimal working temperatures, and to consume the minimum possible electrical energy through the cooling circuit actuators. This multi-objective requirement is formulated as a finite-horizon optimal control problem (OCP) that includes a multi-objective cost function, several constraints and a prediction model especially suitable for optimization. The associated NMPC is performed on real-time by the optimization package MUSCOD-II and is validated in three different repeatable test-drives driven with a PHEV. Starting from identical conditions, each cycle is driven once being the cooling circuit controlled with NMPC and once with a conventional approach based on a finite-state machine. Compared to the conventional strategy, the NMPC proposed here results in a more accurate and healthier temperature performance, and at the same time, leads to reductions in the electrical consumption up to 8%.Postprint (author's final draft

    Tècniques i mètodes d'avaluació a la UPC. Incidència en els processos

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    En el presente proyecto, en primer lugar se ha estructurado y organizado el contenido del espacio virtual propio del Grupo de evaluación, GRAPA, dentro de la plataforma RIMA. Dicho entorno incluye desde aportaciones propias de los miembros del grupo, principalmente profesorado UPC, sobre sus experiencias en técnicas de evaluación, hasta bibliografía general y específica del ámbito. Además se ha traducido el contenido del entorno virtual a los dos idiomas oficiales de Cataluña para posibilitar su difusión al resto de España y así poder convertirse también en un referente nacional. Se ha ido actualizando el contenido para mantener al día toda la información de interés en el ámbito de la docencia y en especial de la evaluación. Con esta actuación se ha conseguido el principal resultado esperado del proyecto que era el de “Crear un espacio virtual propio en el ámbito de la evaluación de la práctica académica, que permita a toda la comunidad docente de la UPC, encontrar sistemas de evaluación sistematizados útiles para sus asignaturas, que aseguren la calidad del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje”. En segundo lugar y no por ello menos importante, la ayuda económica concedida en este proyecto ha permitido difundir y dar visibilidad a las iniciativas y los resultados obtenidos por el grupo GRAPA, a toda la comunidad universitaria, por un lado mediante la participación y asistencia a varios congresos nacionales del ámbito docente y por otro mediante la realización de reuniones y contactos con otros grupos de innovación nacionales. Uno de los resultados más importantes fruto de estos contactos ha sido la organización de varios talleres o cursos de formación en el ámbito de la evaluación, ofertados a toda la comunidad universitaria a través del ICE-UPC, Las diferentes Institut de Ciències de l’Educació – Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – octubre 2008 - 2 - actuaciones han favorecido la divulgación del grupo, posibilitando el aumento del número de miembros UPC de los 18 iniciales a los 36 actuales, todos ellos en mayor o menor medida activos en el grupo.Postprint (published version

    Role of age and comorbidities in mortality of patients with infective endocarditis

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    [Purpose]: The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of patients with IE in three groups of age and to assess the ability of age and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) to predict mortality. [Methods]: Prospective cohort study of all patients with IE included in the GAMES Spanish database between 2008 and 2015.Patients were stratified into three age groups:<65 years,65 to 80 years,and ≥ 80 years.The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was calculated to quantify the diagnostic accuracy of the CCI to predict mortality risk. [Results]: A total of 3120 patients with IE (1327 < 65 years;1291 65-80 years;502 ≥ 80 years) were enrolled.Fever and heart failure were the most common presentations of IE, with no differences among age groups.Patients ≥80 years who underwent surgery were significantly lower compared with other age groups (14.3%,65 years; 20.5%,65-79 years; 31.3%,≥80 years). In-hospital mortality was lower in the <65-year group (20.3%,<65 years;30.1%,65-79 years;34.7%,≥80 years;p < 0.001) as well as 1-year mortality (3.2%, <65 years; 5.5%, 65-80 years;7.6%,≥80 years; p = 0.003).Independent predictors of mortality were age ≥ 80 years (hazard ratio [HR]:2.78;95% confidence interval [CI]:2.32–3.34), CCI ≥ 3 (HR:1.62; 95% CI:1.39–1.88),and non-performed surgery (HR:1.64;95% CI:11.16–1.58).When the three age groups were compared,the AUROC curve for CCI was significantly larger for patients aged <65 years(p < 0.001) for both in-hospital and 1-year mortality. [Conclusion]: There were no differences in the clinical presentation of IE between the groups. Age ≥ 80 years, high comorbidity (measured by CCI),and non-performance of surgery were independent predictors of mortality in patients with IE.CCI could help to identify those patients with IE and surgical indication who present a lower risk of in-hospital and 1-year mortality after surgery, especially in the <65-year group

    Mortality and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international cohort study

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    Background: The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on postoperative recovery needs to be understood to inform clinical decision making during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports 30-day mortality and pulmonary complication rates in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: This international, multicentre, cohort study at 235 hospitals in 24 countries included all patients undergoing surgery who had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed within 7 days before or 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality and was assessed in all enrolled patients. The main secondary outcome measure was pulmonary complications, defined as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or unexpected postoperative ventilation. Findings: This analysis includes 1128 patients who had surgery between Jan 1 and March 31, 2020, of whom 835 (74·0%) had emergency surgery and 280 (24·8%) had elective surgery. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed preoperatively in 294 (26·1%) patients. 30-day mortality was 23·8% (268 of 1128). Pulmonary complications occurred in 577 (51·2%) of 1128 patients; 30-day mortality in these patients was 38·0% (219 of 577), accounting for 81·7% (219 of 268) of all deaths. In adjusted analyses, 30-day mortality was associated with male sex (odds ratio 1·75 [95% CI 1·28–2·40], p\textless0·0001), age 70 years or older versus younger than 70 years (2·30 [1·65–3·22], p\textless0·0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists grades 3–5 versus grades 1–2 (2·35 [1·57–3·53], p\textless0·0001), malignant versus benign or obstetric diagnosis (1·55 [1·01–2·39], p=0·046), emergency versus elective surgery (1·67 [1·06–2·63], p=0·026), and major versus minor surgery (1·52 [1·01–2·31], p=0·047). Interpretation: Postoperative pulmonary complications occur in half of patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with high mortality. Thresholds for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic should be higher than during normal practice, particularly in men aged 70 years and older. Consideration should be given for postponing non-urgent procedures and promoting non-operative treatment to delay or avoid the need for surgery. Funding: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, Bowel and Cancer Research, Bowel Disease Research Foundation, Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, British Association of Surgical Oncology, British Gynaecological Cancer Society, European Society of Coloproctology, NIHR Academy, Sarcoma UK, Vascular Society for Great Britain and Ireland, and Yorkshire Cancer Research

    VIII Encuentro de Docentes e Investigadores en Historia del Diseño, la Arquitectura y la Ciudad

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    Acta de congresoLa conmemoración de los cien años de la Reforma Universitaria de 1918 se presentó como una ocasión propicia para debatir el rol de la historia, la teoría y la crítica en la formación y en la práctica profesional de diseñadores, arquitectos y urbanistas. En ese marco el VIII Encuentro de Docentes e Investigadores en Historia del Diseño, la Arquitectura y la Ciudad constituyó un espacio de intercambio y reflexión cuya realización ha sido posible gracias a la colaboración entre Facultades de Arquitectura, Urbanismo y Diseño de la Universidad Nacional y la Facultad de Arquitectura de la Universidad Católica de Córdoba, contando además con la activa participación de mayoría de las Facultades, Centros e Institutos de Historia de la Arquitectura del país y la región. Orientado en su convocatoria tanto a docentes como a estudiantes de Arquitectura y Diseño Industrial de todos los niveles de la FAUD-UNC promovió el debate de ideas a partir de experiencias concretas en instancias tales como mesas temáticas de carácter interdisciplinario, que adoptaron la modalidad de presentación de ponencias, entre otras actividades. En el ámbito de VIII Encuentro, desarrollado en la sede Ciudad Universitaria de Córdoba, se desplegaron numerosas posiciones sobre la enseñanza, la investigación y la formación en historia, teoría y crítica del diseño, la arquitectura y la ciudad; sumándose el aporte realizado a través de sus respectivas conferencias de Ana Clarisa Agüero, Bibiana Cicutti, Fernando Aliata y Alberto Petrina. El conjunto de ponencias que se publican en este Repositorio de la UNC son el resultado de dos intensas jornadas de exposiciones, cuyos contenidos han posibilitado actualizar viejos dilemas y promover nuevos debates. El evento recibió el apoyo de las autoridades de la FAUD-UNC, en especial de la Secretaría de Investigación y de la Biblioteca de nuestra casa, como así también de la Facultad de Arquitectura de la UCC; va para todos ellos un especial agradecimiento

    TERMOTÈCNIA (Examen 1r quadrimestre): L condensador compacte pas sinusoidal (amb resultats MathCad)

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    Exercici nº 2 SOLUCIÓResolved2021/20221er quadrimestr

    10. Otros elementos del circuito

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    2021/202
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