357 research outputs found

    41Ca in tooth enamel. part I: A biological signature of neutron exposure in atomic bomb survivors

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    The detection of 41Ca atoms in tooth enamel using accelerator mass spectrometry is suggested as a method capable of reconstructing thermal neutron exposures from atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In general, 41Ca atoms are produced via thermal neutron capture by stable 40Ca. Thus any 41Ca atoms present in the tooth enamel of the survivors would be due to neutron exposure from both natural sources and radiation from the bomb. Tooth samples from five survivors in a control group with negligible neutron exposure were used to investigate the natural 41Ca content in tooth enamel, and 16 tooth samples from 13 survivors were used to estimate bomb-related neutron exposure. The results showed that the mean 41Ca/Ca isotope ratio was (0.17 ± 0.05) × 10-14 in the control samples and increased to 2 × 10-14 for survivors who were proximally exposed to the bomb. The 41Ca/Ca ratios showed an inverse correlation with distance from the hypocenter at the time of the bombing, similar to values that have been derived from theoretical free-in-air thermal-neutron transport calculations. Given that γ-ray doses were determined earlier for the same tooth samples by means of electron spin resonance (ESR, or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR), these results can serve to validate neutron exposures that were calculated individually for the survivors but that had to incorporate a number of assumptions (e.g. shielding conditions for the survivors).Fil: Wallner, A.. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; Alemania. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemania. Universidad de Viena; AustriaFil: Ruhm, W.. Helmholtz Center Munich German Research Center For Environmental Health; Alemania. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; AlemaniaFil: Rugel, G.. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; Alemania. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; AlemaniaFil: Nakamura, N.. Radiation Effects Research Foundation; JapónFil: Arazi, Andres. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemania. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Faestermann, T.. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; AlemaniaFil: Knie, K.. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemania. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; AlemaniaFil: Maier, H. J.. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; AlemaniaFil: Korschinek, G.. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemani

    Species of Bursaphelenchus Fuchs, 1937 (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) and other nematode genera associated with insects from Pinus pinaster in Portugal

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    Insects associated with maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, in Portugal were collected and screened for the presence of Bursaphelenchus species. Nematodes were identified using Internal Transcribed Spacers-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) analysis of dauer juveniles and morphological identification of adults that developed from dauer juveniles on fungal cultures or on cultures in pine wood segments at 26 C. Several associations are described: Bursaphelenchus teratospicularis and Bursaphelenchus sexdentati are associated with Orthotomicus erosus; Bursaphelenchus tusciae, B. sexdentati and/or Bursaphelenchus pinophilus with Hylurgus ligniperda and Bursaphelenchus hellenicus with Tomicus piniperda, Ips sexdentatus and H. ligniperda. An unidentified Bursaphelenchus species is vectored by Hylobius sp. The previously reported association of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus with Monochamus galloprovincialis was confirmed. The association of Bursaphelenchus leoni with Pityogenes sp. is not definitively established and needs further studies for clarification. Other nematode genera besides Bursaphelenchus were found to be associated with the insects sampled, including two different species of Ektaphelenchus, Parasitorhabditis sp., Parasitaphelenchus sp., Contortylenchus sp. and other unidentified nematodes. The Ektaphelenchus species found in O. erosus is morphologically similar to B. teratospicularis found in the same insect; adults of both the species are found in cocoon-like structures under the elytra of the insects. Introduction Approximately one third of the nematodes belonging to the order Aphelenchida Siddiqi, 1980 are associated with insects (Poinar, 1983). These nematodes establish a variety of associations with the insects, which may be described as commensalism, e.g. phoresy (to the benefit of the nematode but not affecting the insect), mutualism (both the organisms benefit) or parasitism (nematodes benefit at the expense of the insect) (Giblin-Davis, 2004). Most Bursaphelenchus Fuchs, 1937 species are mycetophagous, feeding on fungi in the galleries of bark beetles and thu

    Population health and the economy: Mortality and the Great Recession in Europe

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    We analyze the evolution of mortality‐based health indicators in 27 European countries before and after the start of the Great Recession. We find that in the countries where the crisis has been particularly severe, mortality reductions in 2007–2010 were considerably bigger than in 2004–2007. Panel models adjusted for space‐invariant and time‐invariant factors show that an increase of 1 percentage point in the national unemployment rate is associated with a reduction of 0.5% (p < .001) in the rate of age‐adjusted mortality. The pattern of mortality oscillating procyclically is found for total and sex‐specific mortality, cause‐specific mortality due to major causes of death, and mortality for ages 30–44 and 75 and over, but not for ages 0–14. Suicides appear increasing when the economy decelerates—countercyclically—but the evidence is weak. Results are robust to using different weights in the regression, applying nonlinear methods for detrending, expanding the sample, and using as business cycle indicator gross domestic product per capita or employment‐to‐population ratios rather than the unemployment rate. We conclude that in the European experience of the past 20 years, recessions, on average, have beneficial short‐term effects on mortality of the adult population.Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/142224/1/hec3495_am.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/142224/2/hec3495.pd

    Female labour market outcomes and the impact of maternity leave policies

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    ABSTRACT: This paper shows how family policies aimed at reconciling the pressures of family and work generate substantial variation in labour market outcomes across developed countries. We use a life-cycle model of female labour supply and savings behaviour, calibrated to the US economy, to assess the effect of introducing to the US a maternity leave policy similar to Scandinavian-type policies. We focus on the impact on gender differences in participation and in wages. We distinguish between the effect of the job protection offered by maternity leave and the effect of income replacement. Job protection leads to substantial increases in participation of mothers with children under 6, but with little long term effects. The effects on wages are minimal, with negative selection effects offsetting the reduced human capital depreciation. Income replacement has a limited impact on participation or wages.Virginia Sánchez-Marcos thanks the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology for Grant ECO2009-09614 and RecerCaixa for financial support
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