45 research outputs found

    Magnetic nanoparticles in the central nervous system: Targeting principles, applications and safety issues

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    One of the most challenging goals in pharmacological research is overcoming the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) to deliver drugs to the Central Nervous System (CNS). The use of physical means, such as steady and alternating magnetic fields to drive nanocarriers with proper magnetic characteristics may prove to be a useful strategy. The present review aims at providing an up-to-date picture of the applications of magnetic-driven nanotheranostics agents to the CNS. Although well consolidated on physical ground, some of the techniques described herein are still under investigation on in vitro or in silico models, while others have already entered in—or are close to—clinical validation. The review provides a concise overview of the physical principles underlying the behavior of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) interacting with an external magnetic field. Thereafter we describe the physiological pathways by which a substance can reach the brain from the bloodstream and then we focus on those MNP applications that aim at a nondestructive crossing of the BBB such as static magnetic fields to facilitate the passage of drugs and alternating magnetic fields to increment BBB permeability by magnetic heating. In conclusion, we briefly cite the most notable biomedical applications of MNPs and some relevant remarks about their safety and potential toxicity

    Mechanical and Biological Characterization of PMMA/Al2O3 Composites for Dental Implant Abutments

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    The mechanical and biological behaviors of PMMA/Al2O3 composites incorporating 30 wt.%, 40 wt.%, and 50 wt.% of Al2O3 were thoroughly characterized as regards to their possible application in implant-supported prostheses. The Al2O3 particles accounted for an increase in the flexural modulus of PMMA. The highest value was recorded for the composite containing 40 wt.% Al2O3 (4.50 GPa), which was about 18% higher than that of its unfilled counterpart (3.86 GPa). The Al2O3 particles caused a decrease in the flexural strength of the composites, due to the presence of filler aggregates and voids, though it was still satisfactory for the intended application. The roughness (Ra) and water contact angle had the same trend, ranging from 1.94 microns and 77.2° for unfilled PMMA to 2.45 microns and 105.8° for the composite containing the highest alumina loading, respectively, hence influencing both the protein adsorption and cell adhesion. No cytotoxic effects were found, confirming that all the specimens are biocompatible and capable of sustaining cell growth and proliferation, without remarkable differences at 24 and 48 h. Finally, Al2O3 was able to cause strong cell responses (cell orientation), thus guiding the tissue formation in contact with the composite itself and not enhancing its osteoconductive properties, supporting the PMMA composite’s usage in the envisaged application
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