2,338 research outputs found

    Metamorphic fluids and uplift-erosion history of a portion of the Kapuskasing structural zone, Ontario, as deduced from fluid inclusions

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    Fluid inclusions can be used to determine the compositional evolution of fluids present in high grade metamorphic rocks (Touret, 1979) along with the general P-T path followed by the rocks during uplift and erosion (Hollister et al., 1979). In this context, samples of high grade gneisses from the Kapuskasing structural zone (KSZ, Fig. 1) of eastern Ontario were studied in an attempt to define the composition of syn- and post-metamorphic fluids and help constrain the uplift and erosion history of the KSZ. Recent work by Percival (1980), Percival and Card (1983) and Percival and Krogh (1983) shows that the KSZ represents lower crustal granulites that form the lower portion of an oblique cross section through the Archean crust, which was up faulted along a northeast striking thrust fault. The present fluid inclusion study places constraints upon the P-T path which the KSZ followed during uplift and erosion

    Sin and Forgiveness in Dostoyevsky

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    Our purpose in this paper is to analyze the writings of this penetrating author in order to determine his concept of sin and forgiveness. The sources for this research will be the Constance Garnett translations, the accuracy of which will not be questioned. The thought of Dostoyevsky which we will study is his thought as he expressed it in his major novels, although, by way of introduction, certain aspects of his life and character will be noted. Reference is frequently made to the opinions of several of Dostoyevsky’s principa1 interpreters. This is usually done by way of illustration, or in substantiation of evidence already derived directly from the writings or Dostoyevsky himself

    Fundamentalism and the Missouri Synod

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    Perhaps current tensions and polarization in the Synod have demonstrated the relevance of the study and desirability of updating it. On the other hand, 125th anniversary considerations may have prompted the request. Then again, since the request came rather late (only a month before the deadline), the unflattering truth may be that this article is a filler for other material which was cancelled at the last minute. Some questions are better left unanswered. (ED.: Ain\u27t it the truth?

    Deep lithospheric dynamics beneath the Sierra Nevada during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic as inferred from xenolith petrology

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    Peridotite xenoliths erupted in late Miocene basalts (~8 Ma) in the central Sierra Nevada sample a lithosphere that is vertically stratified in terms of age and thermal history. The deeper portions (~45-100 km) have asthenospheric osmium isotopic compositons and possess textural and chemical evidence for cooling from >1100° to 700-820°C. The shallower portions (<60 km) have unradiogenic Os isotopic compositions, which yield Proterozoic model ages, and contain orthopyroxenes that record temperatures as low as 670°C in their cores and heating up to 900°C on their rims. These observations suggest that the deeper xenoliths represent fragments of hot asthenosphere that upwelled to intrude and/or underplate the overlying Proterozoic lithosphere represented by the shallower xenoliths. The contrasting thermal histories between the shallow and deep xenoliths suggest that hot asthenosphere and cold lithosphere were suddenly juxtaposed, a feature consistent with the aftermath of rapid lithospheric removal or sudden intrusion of asthenospheric mantle into the lithosphere rather than passive extension. On the basis of regional tectonics and various time constraints, it is possible that this lithospheric removal event was associated with the generation of the Sierra Nevada granitic batholith during Mesozoic subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Pleistocene basalt-hosted xenoliths record a different chapter in the geodynamic history of the Sierras. These xenoliths are relatively fertile, come from depths shallower than 45-60 km, are characterized by asthenospheric Os isotopic compositions, record hot equilibration temperatures (1000°-1100°C), and show no evidence for cooling. The strong contrast in composition and thermal history between the Pleistocene and late Miocene suites indicate that the post-Mesozoic lithospheric mantle, as represented by the latter, was entirely replaced by the former. The hot Pleistocene peridotites may thus represent new lithospheric additions associated with a post-Miocene lithospheric removal event or extension. High elevations, low sub-Moho seismic velocities, and the presence of fast velocity anomalies at 200 km depth may be manifestations of this event. If lithospheric removal occurred in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, the observations presented here place constraints on the styles of lithospheric removal. In the Mesozoic, the lithospheric mantle was only partially removed, whereas in the Pliocene, the entire lithospheric mantle and probably the mafic lower crust were removed

    Detection of confinement and jumps in single molecule membrane trajectories

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    We propose a novel variant of the algorithm by Simson et al. [R. Simson, E.D. Sheets, K. Jacobson, Biophys. J. 69, 989 (1995)]. Their algorithm was developed to detect transient confinement zones in experimental single particle tracking trajectories of diffusing membrane proteins or lipids. We show that our algorithm is able to detect confinement in a wider class of confining potential shapes than Simson et al.'s one. Furthermore it enables to detect not only temporary confinement but also jumps between confinement zones. Jumps are predicted by membrane skeleton fence and picket models. In the case of experimental trajectories of μ\mu-opioid receptors, which belong to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors involved in a signal transduction pathway, this algorithm confirms that confinement cannot be explained solely by rigid fences.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Measurement of the Integrated Faraday Rotations of BL Lac Objects

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    We present the results of multi-frequency polarization VLA observations of radio sources from the complete sample of northern, radio-bright BL Lac objects compiled by H. Kuhr and G. Schmidt. These were used to determine the integrated rotation measures of 18 objects, 15 of which had never been measured previously, which hindered analysis of the intrinsic polarization properties of objects in the complete sample. These measurements make it possible to correct the observed orientations of the linear polarizations of these sources for the effect of Faraday rotation. The most probable origin for Faraday rotation in these objects is the Galactic interstellar medium. The results presented complete measurements of the integrated rotation measures for all 34 sources in the complete sample of BL Lac objects.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figure

    Is the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect responsible for the observed steepening in the spectrum of the Coma radio halo ?

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    The spectrum of the radio halo in the Coma cluster is measured over almost two decades in frequency. The current radio data show a steepening of the spectrum at higher frequencies, which has implications for models of the radio halo origin. There is an on-going debate on the possibility that the observed steepening is not intrinsic to the emitted radiation, but is instead caused by the SZ effect. Recently, the Planck satellite measured the SZ signal and its spatial distribution in the Coma cluster allowing to test this hypothesis. Using the Planck results, we calculated the modification of the radio halo spectrum by the SZ effect in three different ways. With the first two methods we measured the SZ-decrement within the aperture radii used for flux measurements of the halo at the different frequencies. First we adopted the global compilation of data from Thierbach et al. and a reference aperture radius consistent with those used by the various authors. Second we used the available brightness profiles of the halo at different frequencies to derive the spectrum within two fixed apertures, and derived the SZ-decrement using these apertures. As a third method we used the quasi-linear correlation between the y and the radio-halo brightness at 330 MHz discovered by Planck to derive the modification of the radio spectrum by the SZ-decrement in a way that is almost independent of the adopted aperture radius. We found that the spectral modification induced by the SZ-decrement is 4-5 times smaller than that necessary to explain the observed steepening. Consequently a break or cut-off in the spectrum of the emitting electrons is necessary to explain current data. We also show that, if a steepening is absent from the emitted spectrum, future deep observations at 5 GHz with single dishes are expected to measure a halo flux in a 40 arcmin radius that would be 7-8 times higher than currently seen.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, accepted in Astronomy and Astrophysics (date of acceptance 19/08/2013

    Regional study of the Archean to Proterozoic crust at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO+), Ontario: Predicting the geoneutrino flux

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    The SNO+ detector, a new kiloton scale liquid scintillator detector capable of recording geoneutrino events, will define the strength of the Earth radiogenic heat. A detailed 3-D model of the regional crust, centered at SNO+ and based on compiled geological, geophysical and geochemical information, was used to characterize the physical and chemical attributes of crust and assign uncertainties to its structure. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the U and Th abundances and uncertainties in crustal lithologies and to model the regional crustal geoneutrino signal originating from the at SNO+
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