38 research outputs found

    Water–rock interaction within the oligotrophic peat bog (part of the Vasyugan Swamp, Western Siberia)

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    Geochemical conditions of the formation of various minerals were studied within the oligotrophic pine-shrub and sphagnum peat bog. It was shown that at least two complex barriers function within the peat deposit. These barriers correspond to the changes in the advective and diffusion transfer of substances and promote the immobilization of Fe and a number of other chemical elements. The upper complex geochemical (redox, sulfide and sorption) barrier occurs approximately at the depths of 0.40 to 1.25 m. The lower complex geochemical (alkaline and sorption) and mechanical barriers are located at the bottom part of the peat deposit (the depth of 2.25–2.50 m)

    Structural-chemical features and morphology of glauconites in sedimentary iron ore of Bakchar prospect (Western Siberia)

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    The research embraces the investigation results of glauconites in Bakchar iron ore occurrences to evaluate the potential diversified commercial application of this mineral. The following lab methods were used to analyze the morphology, chemical composition and structure of glauconites: granulometric analysis, optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, atomic arc-emission analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Glauconite was classified according to morphology and grain color and chemical composition and some specific characteristics were also determined (relative content of absorbed water, random distribution of smectite flakes within the grain structures). The research results showed that pistacho-green glauconite grains are less subjected to alteration than greenish-yellow grains due to the content of potassium, iron, absorbed water and organic impurities

    Mechanochemical Preparation of Slow Release Fertilizer Based on Glauconite–Urea Complexes

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    We investigated the mechanochemical synthesis of complex slow release fertilizers (SRF) derived from glauconite. We studied the effectiveness of the mechanical intercalation of urea into glauconite using planetary and ring mills. The potassium-nitric complex SRFs were synthesized via a mechanochemical method mixing glauconite with urea in a 3:1 ratio. The obtained composites were analyzed using X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. The results show that as duration of mechanochemical activation increases, the mineralogical, chemical, and structural characteristics of composites change. Essential modifications associated with a decrease in absorbed urea and the formation of microcrystallites were observed when the planetary milling time increased from 5 to 10 min and the ring milling from 15 to 30 min. Complete intercalation of urea into glauconite was achieved by 20 min grinding in a planetary mill or 60 min in a ring mill. Urea intercalation in glauconite occurs much faster when using a planetary mill compared to a ring mill

    Depositional Conditions of Cretaceous Ironstones Deposit in the Chulym-Yenisey Basin (Western Siberia)

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    This study reconstructs the depositional conditions of ironstones within the Chulym-Yenisey basin and assesses the iron source. The detrital minerals of the studied deposits include quartz and feldspar. The authigenic minerals are goethite, siderite, aragonite, dolomite, calcite, apatite, barite, and pyrite. The clay components include minerals of the chlorite group (possible chamosite), nontronite, kaolinite, illite, and beidellite. Local bacterial sulfate reduction led to the formation of pyrite framboids in siltstone layers. The subsequent diagenetic iron reduction promoted the formation of chamosite from siderite. The goethite precipitation occurred in an oxidic aqueous environment. The Cretaceous continental sediments of the Ilek and Kia Formations of the Chulym-Yenisei depression consist of fine- and medium-grained, cross-stratified, poorly sorted litho-feldspatho-quartzose sandstones of fluvial channel origin alternating with bluish-gray siltstones and ironstones of floodplain-lacustrine-bog origin. Thin layers of iron-bearing rocks within siltstones formed in meromictic waters. The changes in geochemical proxies demonstrate fluctuations of paleoenvironmental conditions within the Cretaceous sequence. Siltstones and sandstones formed under humid and arid conditions, respectively. The primary iron source for sediments of the Chulym-Yenisey depression was determined as volcanogenic and igneous rocks of the Altai-Sayan mountainous region

    The Formation of Authigenic Carbonates at a Methane Seep Site in the Northern Part of the Laptev Sea

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    Authigenic carbonates from cold seeps are unique archives for studying environmental conditions, including biogeochemical processes associated with methane-rich fluid migration through the sediment column. The aim of this research was to study major oxide, mineralogical, and stable isotopic compositions of cold-seep authigenic carbonates collected in the northern part of the Laptev Sea. These carbonates are represented by Mg-calcite with an Mg content of 2% to 8%. The ?13C values range from ?27.5‰ to ?28.2‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite (VPDB) and indicate that carbonates formed due to anaerobic oxidation of methane, most likely thermogenic in origin. The authigenic pyrite in Mg-calcite is evidence of sulfate reduction during carbonate precipitation. The ?18O values of carbonates vary from 3.5‰ to 3.8‰ VPDB. The calculated ?18Ofluid values show that pore water temperature for precipitated Mg-calcite was comparable to bottom seawater temperature. The presence of authigenic carbonate in the upper horizons of sediments suggests that the sulfate–methane transition zone is shallowly below the sediment–water interface

    Minerals of Rare Earth Elements in High-Phosphorus Ooidal Ironstones of the Western Siberia and Turgai Depression

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    The aim of this research was to study the rare earth (REE) minerals in ooidal ironstone deposits of the West Siberian basin and the Turgai depression. Authigenic minerals (monazite and cerite) were described, and their main mineral form was identified as light rare earth element phosphate (LREE-phosphate) in this study. LREE-phosphate is included in ferruginous ooids, peloids, and oncoids and forms a consistent mineral association with Fe-hydroxides (goethite and its hydrated amorphous derivatives) and Fe-rich layered silicates (Fe-illite-smectite, chamosite, berthierine). The constancy of the mineral association in two deposits of different ages indicates a general mechanism behind the formation of these minerals. LREE-phosphates (authigenic monazite) are characterized by microscopic sizes (up to 24 ?m), diverse morphology (mainly spherical or xenomorphic), and occupy spaces between the micro-cortex in ferruginous spheroids. This mineral can be found in other deposits of ooidal ironstone. According to its mineralogical and chemical characteristics, LREE-phosphate mainly belongs to the authigenic (nodular or “gray”) monazite. However, the incomplete (not 100%) correspondence of Kikuchi bands with the reference monazite does not allow its reliable identification. Based on its small size, chemical leaching or bacterial interaction is recommended to extract REE from ooidal ironstone while predicting the associated removal of phosphorus from iron ore due to its dominant phosphate mineral form. Ooidal ironstone should be considered a complex deposit and an unconventional natural type of REE ores as an example of the largest Bakchar and Lisakovsk deposits

    Authigenic and Detrital Minerals in Peat Environment of Vasyugan Swamp, Western Siberia†

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    Studies of mineral-forming processes in modern peat bogs can shed light on metal concentrations and their cycling in similar environments, especially in geological paleoanalogs. In terms of the mineralogical and geochemical evolution of peat bog environments, the Vasyugan Swamp in Western Siberia is a unique scientific object. Twelve peat samples were collected from the Vasyugan Swamp up to the depth of 275 cm at 25 cm intervals. The studied peat deposit section is represented by oligotrophic (0-100 cm), mesotrophic (100-175 cm), and eutrophic (175-275 cm) peat, and this is underlain by basal sediments (from 275 cm). About 30 minerals were detected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The observed minerals are divided into detrital, clay, and authigenic phases. The detrital minerals found included quartz, feldspar, ilmenite, rutile, magnetite, zircon, and monazite. When passing from basal to oligotrophic bog sediments, the clay minerals changed from illite-smectite to kaolinite. Authigenic minerals are represented by carbonates (calcite and dolomite), iron (hydro-)oxides, galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, Zn-Pb-S mineral, barite, baritocelestine, celestine, tetrahedrite, cassiterite, REE phosphate, etc. The regular distribution of mineral inclusions in peat is associated with the (bio)geochemical evolution of the environment. The formation of authigenic Zn, Pb and Sb sulfides is mainly confined to anaerobic conditions that exist in the eutrophic peat and basal sediments. The maximum amount of pyrite is associated with the interval of 225-250 cm, which is the zone of transition from basal sediments to eutrophic peat. The formation of carbonate minerals and the decreasing concentration of clay in the association with local sulfide formation (galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, stibnite) begins above this interval. The peak of specific carbonation appears in the 125-150 cm interval of the mesotrophic peat, which is characterized by pH 4.9-4.5 of pore water. Kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral in the oligotrophic peat. Gypsum, galena, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and relicts of carbonate are noted in association with kaolinite. Changes in oxygen concentrations are reflected in newly formed mineral associations in corresponding intervals of the peat. This can be explained by the activity of microbiological processes such as the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR), expressed in specific carbonatization (100-225 cm) and sulfidization (175-250 cm), respectively

    Ooidal ironstones in the Meso-Cenozoic sequences in western Siberia: assessment of formation processes and relationship with regional and global earth processes

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    This study investigates the process of formation of ooidal ironstones in the Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene succession in western Siberia. The formation of such carbonate-based ironstones is a continuing problem in sedimentary geology, and in this study, we use a variety of data and proxies assembled from core samples to develop a model to explain how the ooidal ironstones formed. Research on pyrite framboids and geochemical redox proxies reveals three intervals of oceanic hypoxia during the deposition of marine ooidal ironstones in the Late Cretaceous to the Early Paleogene Bakchar ironstone deposit in western Siberia; the absence of pyrite indicates oxic conditions for the remaining sequence. While goethite formed in oxic depositional condition, chamosite, pyrite and siderite represented hypoxic seawater. Euhedral pyrite crystals form through a series of transition originating from massive aggregate followed by normal and polygonal framboid. Sediments associated with goethite-chamosite ironstones, encompassing hypoxic intervals exhibit positive cerium, negative europium, and negative yttrium anomalies. Mercury anomalies, associated with the initial stages of hypoxia, correlate with global volcanic events. Redox sensitive proxies and ore mineral assemblages of deposits reflect hydrothermal activation. Rifting and global volcanism possibly induced hydrothermal convection in the sedimentary cover of western Siberia, and released iron-rich fluid and methane in coastal and shallow marine environments. This investigation, therefore, reveals a potential geological connection between Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), marine hypoxia, rifting and the formation of ooidal ironstones in ancient West Siberian Sea

    Ooidal ironstones in the Meso-Cenozoic sequences in western Siberia: assessment of formation processes and relationship with regional and global earth processes

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    This study investigates the process of formation of ooidal ironstones in the Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene succession in western Siberia. The formation of such carbonate-based ironstones is a continuing problem in sedimentary geology, and in this study, we use a variety of data and proxies assembled from core samples to develop a model to explain how the ooidal ironstones formed. Research on pyrite framboids and geochemical redox proxies reveals three intervals of oceanic hypoxia during the deposition of marine ooidal ironstones in the Late Cretaceous to the Early Paleogene Bakchar ironstone deposit in western Siberia; the absence of pyrite indicates oxic conditions for the remaining sequence. While goethite formed in oxic depositional condition, chamosite, pyrite and siderite represented hypoxic seawater. Euhedral pyrite crystals form through a series of transition originating from massive aggregate followed by normal and polygonal framboid. Sediments associated with goethite-chamosite ironstones, encompassing hypoxic intervals exhibit positive cerium, negative europium, and negative yttrium anomalies. Mercury anomalies, associated with the initial stages of hypoxia, correlate with global volcanic events. Redox sensitive proxies and ore mineral assemblages of deposits reflect hydrothermal activation. Rifting and global volcanism possibly induced hydrothermal convection in the sedimentary cover of western Siberia, and released iron-rich fluid and methane in coastal and shallow marine environments. This investigation, therefore, reveals a potential geological connection between Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), marine hypoxia, rifting and the formation of ooidal ironstones in ancient West Siberian Sea

    Evaluation of the Effects of the Application of Glauconitic Fertilizer on Oat Development: A Two-Year Field-Based Investigation

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    This study explores the fertilizer potential of glauconitic soil by monitoring its impact on the growth of plants during the second growing season after application. Our study documents a higher growth of oats (Avena sativa) in glauconitic amended soil compared to that recorded with the control sample at the end of a 97-day-long experiment. Concentrations of nutrients (K, P, ammonium, Ca, Mg) and pH of the soil increase sharply in the first growing season and mildly thereafter, after an initial concentration of 200 g·m-2 glauconite (equivalent to 2 t·ha-1). The pH of the glauconitic-amended soil increases from an initial 6.0 to 6.34 during the second season. Organic matter and nitrates decrease in the soil mixture at the end of the second growing season, while the exchangeable ammonium increases. Organic acids promote the mobility and bioavailability of nutrients in the soil. Glauconitic soil is particularly effective for weakly acidic soils with a low moisture content. The steady increase in total yield and plant height, and the slow-release of nutrients during the second growing season indicates that glauconitic soil can be an effective and eco-friendly fertilizer
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