29 research outputs found

    Spinoza, le spinozisme et les fondements de la sécularisation

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    Spinoza, le spinozisme et les fondements de la sécularisation est un ouvrage dédié à la mémoire d’Emmanuel Levinas, dont l’auteur a été l’élève durant plusieurs années. Il vise, à travers une analyse d’ordre philosophique, historique, épistémologique et théologique, à mettre au jour les conditions d’émergence interrelatées du spinozisme et de la sécularisation. Pour ce faire, il souligne, entre autres, l’importance des polémiques anti-maimonidiennes, des débats sur les attributs divins, la substance, l’infini, du marranisme et de la Kabbale sur la formation du spinozisme, ainsi que son rapport à la pensée contemporaine. Il mène une recherche interdisciplinaire devant permettre d’éclairer l’origine des difficultés théoriques que ce système philosophique présente

    Determinism, Divine Will, and Free Will: Spinoza, Leibniz, and Maimonides

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    The question of Spinozist determinism and necessitarianism have been extensively studied by commentators, while the relationship between the notions of divine will and free will still requires elaborate studies. Our article seeks to contribute to such research, by clarifying the analyses of these questions by authors that Spinoza has confronted: Maimonides, as well as other Jewish philosophers, and Leibniz who criticized Spinozist determinism. We will study the consequences of these analyses on two examples that Spinoza gave to refute free will, namely the dream and the situation of Buridan's ass. Résumé: La question du déterminisme spinoziste et du nécessitarisme a été largement étu-diée par les commentateurs, tandis que la relation entre les notions de volonté divine et de libre arbitre nécessite encore des études plus élaborées. Notre article cherche à contribuer à ces recherches, en clarifiant les analyses de ces questions par des auteurs auxquels Spinoza s’est confronté : Maïmonide, ainsi que d’autres philosophes juifs, et Leibniz qui a lui-même critiqué le déterminisme spinoziste. Nous étudierons les conséquences de ces analyses sur deux exemples que Spinoza a donnés pour réfuter le libre arbitre, à savoir le rêve et la situa-tion de l’âne de Buridan

    The question of secularization : Spinoza, deism and atheism

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    The aim of this article is to bring to light some of the factors that allowed the emergence of secularization, and to understand to what extent and in what ways these factors contributed to the formation of the main lines of Spinozism. I will first examine the issues of secularization, emphasizing the importance of the transformations in the status of the Hebrew language during the Renaissance. I will then analyze the role that the Tractatus theologico-politicus may have had in European culture. Finally, I will clarify Spinoza’s relationship to deism and atheism, specifying the nature of the controversies related to his religious attitude

    Seconde édition révisée et augmentée de Spinoza, le spinozisme et les fodnements de la sécularisation

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    Spinoza, le spinozisme et les fondements de la sécularisation est un ouvrage dédié à la mémoire d’Emmanuel Levinas, dont l’auteur a été l’élève durant plusieurs années. Il vise, à travers une analyse d’ordre philosophique, historique, épistémologique et théologique, à mettre au jour les conditions d’émergence interrelatées du spinozisme et de la sécularisation. Il présente une recherche interdisciplinaire devant permettre d’éclairer l’origine des difficultés théoriques que ce système philosophique présente. Ce volume est le premier d’une pentalogie consacrée à Spinoza et au Spinozisme, dont les autres paraîtront dans la même collection. Spinoza, Spinozism and the Foundations of Secularization is a book dedicated to the memory of Emmanuel Levinas, whose author was a student for several years. It aims, through a philosophical, historical, epistemological and theological analysis, to bring to light the interrelated conditions of emergence of Spinozism and secularization. It presents interdisciplinary research to shed light on the origin of the theoretical difficulties that this philosophical system presents. This volume is the first of a pentalogy devoted to Spinoza and Spinozism, the others of which will appear in the same collection

    L'ostéoporose involutive de la femme: stratégie thérapeutique. Un point de vue actualisé du Belgian Bone Club.

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    Osteoporosis is now considered as a major public health issue and a serious threat for the quality of life of elderly women. Several new compounds are currently marketed for the prevention and treatment of involutional osteoporosis in women. Therefore, it is important to offer to the practitioners pragmatic solutions to be used for the rational management of this disorder. This article is the result of a national consensus offering practical guidelines for the management of osteoporotic patients, based on the current published data.English AbstractJournal Articleinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Loading and skeletal development and maintenance.

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    Mechanical loading is a major regulator of bone mass and geometry. The osteocytes network is considered the main sensor of loads, through the shear stress generated by strain induced fluid flow in the lacuno-canalicular system. Intracellular transduction implies several kinases and phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor. Several extra-cellular mediators, among which NO and prostaglandins are transducing the signal to the effector cells. Disuse results in osteocytes apoptosis and rapid imbalanced bone resorption, leading to severe osteoporosis. Exercising during growth increases peak bone mass, and could be beneficial with regards to osteoporosis later in life, but the gain could be lost if training is abandoned. Exercise programs in adults and seniors have barely significant effects on bone mass and geometry at least at short term. There are few data on a possible additive effect of exercise and drugs in osteoporosis treatment, but disuse could decrease drugs action. Exercise programs proposed for bone health are tedious and compliance is usually low. The most practical advice for patients is to walk a minimum of 30 to 60 minutes per day. Other exercises like swimming or cycling have less effect on bone, but could reduce fracture risk indirectly by maintaining muscle mass and force.Journal Articleinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss in early breast and prostate cancer -- a consensus paper of the Belgian Bone Club.

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    peer reviewedCancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) is one of the most important side effects of adjuvant antineoplastic treatment in hormone-dependent neoplasms. Chemotherapy, GnRH analogs and tamoxifen can induce marked bone loss in premenopausal women with early breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are replacing tamoxifen as the preferred treatment for postmenopausal women. As a class effect, steroidal (exemestane) and non-steroidal (anastrozole and letrozole) AIs increase bone turnover and cause bone loss (4%-5% over 2 years). When compared to tamoxifen, the risk of getting a clinical fracture under AI treatment is increased by 35%-50%. In patients with prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) increases bone turnover, reduces bone mass (4%-5% per year) and increases the fracture rate depending on the duration of therapy. Zoledronic acid can prevent accelerated bone loss induced by goserelin in premenopausal women, by letrozole in postmenopausal women and by ADT in men. More limited data indicate that weekly alendronate or risedronate could also be effective for preventing CTIBL. Initiation of therapy early, prior to the occurrence of severe osteoporosis, rather than after, may be more effective. Bisphosphonate treatment should be considered in osteoporotic but also in osteopenic patients if other risk factor(s) for fractures are present

    Management of patients with Paget's disease: a consensus document of the Belgian Bone Club.

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    Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a potentially crippling condition. Pain, fracture, spinal stenosis, nerve entrapment, vascular steal syndrome, secondary osteoarthritis, bone deformity, dental problems, deafness, excessive bleeding during orthopaedic surgery, rare sarcomatous degeneration, and hypercalcaemia constitute complications that may impair the quality of life. The therapeutic approach varies from symptomatic (analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs) to more specific drugs such as increasingly potent bisphosphonates. Studies such as the PRISM study should in the future help to determine the superiority or not of aggressive treatment over symptomatic treatment in the prevention of complications. Various oral and/or intravenous (i.v.) bisphosphonates have been tested and are currently on the market. The most recently available nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, i.v. zoledronic acid, is the most potent therapy available for the treatment of PDB. Its therapeutic efficacy, its long-term effect on biologic activity and its good tolerance currently supports its use as a first-line therapeutic option in patients suffering from PDB
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