111 research outputs found

    Differences in prostate tumor characteristics and survival among religious groups in Songkhla, Thailand

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    Abstract Background The incidence and mortality from prostate cancer is expected to increase in the next decade in Thailand. Despite the perceived lower risk in this population vs. developed, western countries, it is becoming an important public health issue. Prostate cancer incidence varies between the most predominant religious groups in Thailand, Buddhists and Muslims. However limited data is available describing the prostate cancer survival in these two populations. Here we examine differences in prostate tumor characteristics and survival between Buddhists and Muslims in the province of Songkhla, Thailand. Methods 945 incident prostate cancer cases (1990‚Äď2014) from the population-based Songkhla Cancer Registry were used in this analysis. Age, grade, stage, and year at diagnosis were compared across religious groups, using Wilcoxon or Chi-square tests. Kaplan Meier methods were used to estimate the median survival time and 5-year survival probabilities. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) between religious groups and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality in age-adjusted and fully-adjusted models. Results Prostate tumor characteristics, age, and year at diagnosis were similar across religious groups. The median survival time after diagnosis of prostate cancer was longer in Buddhists 3.8‚ÄČyears compared with Muslims 3.2‚ÄČyears (p¬†=‚ÄČ0.08). The age-adjusted risk of death after prostate cancer diagnosis was higher in Muslims compared with Buddhists (HR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.00, 1.72). After adjustment by stage and grade, results were slightly attenuated (HR: 1.27, 95%CI: 0.97, 1.67). Conclusion Muslims have shorter survival after prostate cancer diagnosis than do Buddhists in Thailand. The reasons underlying this difference require additional investigation in order to design targeted interventions for both populations.https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/146539/1/12885_2018_Article_5102.pd

    Perceptions of Licensure: A Survey of Michigan Genetic Counselors

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    This study by the Michigan Genetic Counselor Licensure Committee is the first known published documentation of genetic counselors‚Äô beliefs and attitudes about licensure. The response rate from genetic counselors in Michigan was 66% (41/62). Ninety‚Äźfive percent of respondents were supportive of licensure. Respondents believed licensure would legitimize genetic counseling as a distinct allied healthcare profession (97.5%), increase the public‚Äôs protection (75%), and allow genetic counselors to practice independently (67%). While 45% felt licensure would increase counselor involvement in lawsuits, this did not impact licensure support (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.744). Opinions were split regarding physician supervision and ordering tests. Even though 28% favored physician supervision, there was overwhelming support for genetic counselors performing some components of genetic testing (95%) and ordering some types of genetic tests (82%) independent of a physician. Use of this survey may be helpful in other states to assess genetic counselors‚Äô interest in licensure and for drafting legislation.Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/147114/1/jgc40357.pd

    Multiple genome-wide analyses of smoking behavior in the Framingham Heart Study

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    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking behavior may have a genetic basis. We assessed evidence for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the maximum number of cigarettes smoked per day, a trait meant to quantify this behavior, using data collected over 40 years as part of the Framingham Heart Study's original and offspring cohorts. RESULTS: Heritability was estimated to be approximately 21% using variance components (VC) methods (SOLAR), while oligogenic linkage and segregation analysis based on Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods (LOKI) estimated a mean of two large QTLs contributing approximately 28% and 20%, respectively, to the trait's variance. Genome-wide parametric (FASTLINK) and VC linkage analyses (SOLAR) revealed several LOD scores greater than 1.0, with peak LOD scores using both methods on chromosomes 2, 17, and 20; multi-point MCMC methods followed up on these chromosomes. The most robust linkage results were for a QTL between 65 and 84 cM on chromosome 20 with signals from multiple sex- and age-adjusted analyses including two-point LOD scores of 1.30 (parametric) and 1.07 (heritability = 0.17, VC) at 70.51 cM, a multi-point LOD score of 1.50 (heritability = 0.20, VC) at 84 cM, and an intensity ratio of 12.0 (MCMC) at 65 cM. CONCLUSION: Familial aggregation of the maximum number of cigarettes smoked per day was consistent with a genetic component to this behavior, and oligogenic segregation analyses using MCMC suggested two important QTLs. Linkage signals on chromosome 20 between 65 and 84 cM were seen using multiple analytical methods. No linkage result, however, met genome-wide statistical significance criteria, and the true relationship between these regions and smoking behavior remains unclear

    LRpath analysis reveals common pathways dysregulated via DNA methylation across cancer types

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    Abstract Background The relative contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to carcinogenesis is not well understood, including the extent to which epigenetic dysregulation and somatic mutations target similar genes and pathways. We hypothesize that during carcinogenesis, certain pathways or biological gene sets are commonly dysregulated via DNA methylation across cancer types. The ability of our logistic regression-based gene set enrichment method to implicate important biological pathways in high-throughput data is well established. Results We developed a web-based gene set enrichment application called LRpath with clustering functionality that allows for identification and comparison of pathway signatures across multiple studies. Here, we employed LRpath analysis to unravel the commonly altered pathways and other gene sets across ten cancer studies employing DNA methylation data profiled with the Illumina HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. We observed a surprising level of concordance in differential methylation across multiple cancer types. For example, among commonly hypomethylated groups, we identified immune-related functions, peptidase activity, and epidermis/keratinocyte development and differentiation. Commonly hypermethylated groups included homeobox and other DNA-binding genes, nervous system and embryonic development, and voltage-gated potassium channels. For many gene sets, we observed significant overlap in the specific subset of differentially methylated genes. Interestingly, fewer DNA repair genes were differentially methylated than expected by chance. Conclusions Clustering analysis performed with LRpath revealed tightly clustered concepts enriched for differential methylation. Several well-known cancer-related pathways were significantly affected, while others were depleted in differential methylation. We conclude that DNA methylation changes in cancer tend to target a subset of the known cancer pathways affected by genetic aberrations.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/112789/1/12864_2012_Article_4373.pd

    Family history of cancer and head and neck cancer survival

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    Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/137774/1/lary26524_am.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/137774/2/lary26524.pd

    Bisphenol A-associated epigenomic changes in prepubescent girls: a cross-sectional study in Gharbiah, Egypt

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    Abstract Background There is now compelling evidence that epigenetic modifications link adult disease susceptibility to environmental exposures during specific life stages, including pre-pubertal development. Animal studies indicate that bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer used in epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics, may impact health through epigenetic mechanisms, and epidemiological data associate BPA levels with metabolic disorders, behavior changes, and reproductive effects. Thus, we conducted an environmental epidemiology study of BPA exposure and CpG methylation in pre-adolescent girls from Gharbiah, Egypt hypothesizing that methylation profiles exhibit exposure-dependent trends. Methods Urinary concentrations of total (free plus conjugated) species of BPA in spot samples were quantified for 60 girls aged 10 to 13. Genome-wide CpG methylation was concurrently measured in bisulfite-converted saliva DNA using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip (N‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ46). CpG sites from four candidate genes were validated via quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing. Results CpG methylation varied widely among girls, and higher urinary BPA concentrations were generally associated with less genomic methylation. Based on pathway analyses, genes exhibiting reduced methylation with increasing urinary BPA were involved in immune function, transport activity, metabolism, and caspase activity. In particular, hypomethylation of CpG targets on chromosome X was associated with higher urinary BPA. Using the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, we identified a number of candidate genes in our sample that previously have been associated with BPA-related expression change. Conclusions These data indicate that BPA may affect human health through specific epigenomic modification of genes in relevant pathways. Thus, epigenetic epidemiology holds promise for the identification of biomarkers from previous exposures and the development of epigenetic-based diagnostic strategies.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/112909/1/12940_2013_Article_648.pd

    Stability of methylation markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

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    BackgroundAs cancer progresses, methylation patterns change to promote the tumorigenic phenotype. However, stability of methylation markers over time and the extent that biopsy samples are representative of larger tumor specimens are unknown. This information is critical for clinical use of such biomarkers.MethodsNinety‚Äźeight patients with tumor specimens from 2 timepoints were measured for DNA methylation in the promoter regions across 4 genes.ResultsThere were no significant differences in overall methylation of CCNA1 (cyclin A1), NDN (necdin), deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC), and cluster of differentiation 1a (CD1A) within paired specimens (p values‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ.56, .17, .66, and .58, respectively). All genes showed strong correlations between paired specimens across time. Methylation was most consistent for CCNA1 and NDN over time.ConclusionThis report provides the first evidence that methylation markers measured in biopsy samples are representative of gene methylation in later specimens and suggests that biopsy markers could be representative biomarkers for use in defining personalized treatment utilizing epigenetic changes. ¬© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Head Neck 38: E1325‚ÄďE1331, 2016Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/137576/1/hed24223.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/137576/2/hed24223_am.pd

    Significant association between host transcriptome‚Äźderived HPV oncogene E6* influence score and carcinogenic pathways, tumor size, and survival in head and neck cancer

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    BackgroundHuman papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6, E7, and shorter isoforms of E6 (E6*) are known carcinogenic factors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Little is known regarding E6* functions.MethodsWe analyzed RNA‚Äźseq data from 68 HNSCC HPV type 16‚Äźpositive tumors to determine host genes and pathways associated with E6+E7 expression (E6E7) or the percent of full‚Äźlength E6 (E6%FL). Influence scores of E6E7 and E6%FL were used to test for associations with clinical variables.ResultsFor E6E7, we recapitulated all major known affected pathways and revealed additional pathways. E6%FL was found to affect mitochondrial processes, and E6%FL influence score was significantly associated with overall survival and tumor size.ConclusionsHPV E6E7 and E6* result in extensive, dose‚Äźdependent compensatory effects and dysregulation of key cancer pathways. The switch from E6 to E6* promotes oxidative phosphorylation, larger tumor size, and worse prognosis, potentially serving as a prognostic factor for HPV‚Äźpositive HNSCC.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/156432/2/hed26244.pdfhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/156432/1/hed26244_am.pd

    Childhood cancer incidence and survival in Thailand: A comprehensive population‚Äźbased registry analysis, 1990‚Äď2011

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    BackgroundSoutheast Asia is undergoing a transition from infectious to chronic diseases, including a dramatic increase in adult cancers. Childhood cancer research in Thailand has focused predominantly on leukemias and lymphomas or only examined children for a short period of time. This comprehensive multisite study examined childhood cancer incidence and survival rates in Thailand across all International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC) groups over a 20‚Äźyear period.MethodsCancer cases diagnosed in children ages 0‚Äź19¬†years (n¬†=¬†3574) from 1990 to 2011 were extracted from five provincial population‚Äźbased Thai registries, covering approximately 10% of the population. Descriptive statistics of the quality of the registries were evaluated. Age‚Äźstandardized incidence rates (ASRs) were calculated using the Segi world standard population, and relative survival was computed using the Kaplan‚ÄźMeier method. Changes in incidence and survival were analyzed using Joinpoint Regression and reported as annual percent changes (APC).ResultsThe ASR of all childhood cancers during the study period was 98.5 per million person‚Äźyears with 91.0 per million person‚Äźyears in 1990‚Äď2000 and 106.2 per million person‚Äźyears in 2001‚Äď2011. Incidence of all childhood cancers increased significantly (APC¬†=¬†1.2%, P¬†<¬†0.01). The top three cancer groups were leukemias, brain tumors, and lymphomas. The 5‚Äźyear survival for all childhood cancers significantly improved from 39.4% in 1990‚Äď2000 to 47.2% in 2001‚Äď2011 (P¬†<¬†0.01).ConclusionsBoth childhood cancer incidence and survival rates have increased, suggesting improvement in the health care system as more cases are identified and treated. Analyzing childhood cancer trends in low‚Äź and middle‚Äźincome countries can improve understanding of cancer etiology and pediatric health care disparities.Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/146559/1/pbc27428_am.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/146559/2/pbc27428.pd

    Higher carbohydrate intake is associated with increased risk of all√Ę cause and disease√Ę specific mortality in head and neck cancer patients: results from a prospective cohort study

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    Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/145268/1/ijc31413.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/145268/2/ijc31413-sup-0001-suppinfo01.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/145268/3/ijc31413_am.pd
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